For an explanation, see the main splats page
SPLATS about materials science
The principles of materials science
- Materials have a measurable elasticity: metals are highly elastic and commonly have high tensile strength, which is the reason why wire cables are so strong.
- Materials can have either or both of two forms of strength: strength in compression or strength in tension. Most materials have only one of the two strengths.
- Many constructions combine two phases, one material with compressional strength, one material with tensional strength, like reinforced concrete or fibre-glass.
- Materials are usually selected to suit the purpose they are to be used for, while two-phase materials combine the advantages of two different materials.
- Structures are designed to stay up, and they do so because they distribute stress and load in a way that allows all components to be supported and held.
- Arches transfer loads and reduce stress in gap-spanning structures such as bridges, and a cantilever can be used to support a projecting structure.
- The aim of the arch is to convert tensional forces to compressional forces, as these are usually easier to manage when people are working in stone.
- Stone is a material which can withstand large forces of compression, but it can be shown to be not so strong when it is placed under tension.
- Cathedrals and mosques were early structures targeting a large floor space with no columns to block views. This led to a better understanding of engineering.
- Large structures like cathedrals, mosques and bridges achieve large spans by transferring the loads to where they can be handled by the materials used.
- Any pure material has a characteristic constant density. Density is determined by differences in packing of particles and atomic mass and radius.
- Robert Hooke proposed what we now refer to as Hooke's law in these words: The power of any Spring is in the same proportion with the Tension thereof.
- In 1744 Leonhard Euler calculated the length of a rod that will buckle under its own weight when stood on one end, indicating that materials have their limits.
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