For an explanation, see the main splats page
SPLATS about irrigation and water supply
Irrigation and water supply
See also Groundwater
- The aqueduct was an early means of transporting water with no energy cost, but it required complex masonry and the ability to make waterproof channels.
- Groundwater occurs wherever the geology allows it. The minimum requirement is for porous and permeable rocks to be in contact with a water source.
- The qanat was an early means of transporting water with no energy cost, once the tunnel was made. This Iranian technology spread as far as Morocco and China.
- A river bank may be raised to make a levee, and as the river gathers silt, the levee is also raised, giving an unstable river higher than the surrounding plain.
- In 1674 Pierre Perrault measured rainfall in the Paris basin, finding that it accounted for the flow in the Seine, ruling out a hypothetical underground source.
- In 1752 Phillippe Bruache uses the idea of river basins to divide the world into natural regions, and we still use this today when we speak of the Amazon basin.
- Water can be raised by an Archimedean screw, which uses the rotation of a crank to produce a continual gentle flow of water while the crank is turned.
- The standard pump relies on one or more valves, each of which is a cleverly arranged flap or ball that allows flow in a pipe or opening in one direction only.
- Water can be raised by different pump types, and has been done since ancient times: water management has been a major unifying influence in many civilizations.
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