For an explanation, see the main splats page
SPLATS about the separation of materials
The principles of the separation of materials
- Distillation relies on differences in boiling points in two liquids. The vapour that is driven off will be richer in one component than the original mixture.
- One way of separating dissolved material is by steam distillation, which applies a carefully controlled heat which does not harm delicate molecules.
- Much of industry depends on effective ways of preparing pure chemicals in significant amounts at a sufficiently low price and at a low cost to the environment.
- Much of 19th and 20th century chemistry aimed to find ways to prepare industrial quantities of key chemicals that were needed in textile and other industries.
- The Solvay process was developed as a way to produce sodium carbonate, which was and is an essential industrial chemical in many manufacturing operations.
- Gases that are insoluble may be collected by the downward displacement of water, soluble gases require more complex arrangements so as to collect pure samples.
- Destructive distillation is used to prepare some materials, and usually involves chemical change. It is more heating in the absence of air than distillation
- One way of separating dissolved material is by dialysis, which involves filtration through a membrane under some form of active transport or pressure.
- As a form of separation, sedimentation relies on differences in density, with more dense solids in a fluid finding their way to the bottom of a container.
- Filtration relies on differences in the size of particles or molecules, with sufficiently small particles getting through, while larger ones are trapped.
- In 1906, Mikhail Semenovitch Tswett (or Tsvett) first used paper chromatography to separate plant pigments from each other, allowing them to be analysed.
- Chromatography relies on differences in attraction, whether from the solvent or the substrate. This applies to paper and gas chromatography and electrophoresis.
- In 1944, Fred Sanger used chromatography to determine the amino acid sequences in bovine insulin and completed it after ten years of exhaustive work.
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