For an explanation, see the main splats page
SPLATS about carbon chemistry
The principles of carbon chemistry
- Carbon chemistry is also called organic chemistry, because all of the key compounds found in living things contain carbon. Some carbon compounds are inorganic.
- In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler synthesized urea, reacting lead cyanate and ammonia and heating the ammonium cyanate, reducing the special status of organic compounds.
- William Perkin made the first of the aniline dyes in1856, while investigating coal tar, a left-over from the manufacture of coal gas, starting a new industry.
- In 1924, methanol, traditionally made by wood distillation, was able to be made from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a suitable catalyst.
- Carbon chemistry shows parallels and differences when compare with other group 4 elements, but the others do not form long chains as carbon does.
- Carbon atoms can form a total of four bonds with other nearby atoms, so that they can link together to form chains, rings, nets, sheets and balls.
- In 1874, van't Hoff and Le Bel proposed a 3-dimensional stereochemical representation of organic molecules and proposed a tetrahedral carbon atom.
- Hydrocarbons can be altered with a substitution reaction, where one attachment (such as hydrogen atom) is replaced by another (such as chlorine atom).
- The carboxyl group, generally written -COOH, is found in all carboxylic acids, along with a functional group which accounts for any observed differences.
- A polymer is made from monomers, but different polymers may use the same monomer in different ways, by linking it differently or having more or less branching.
- Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that contain a lot of energy and that are easy to store as polymers.
- Amino acids may be assembled into a polypeptide chain which may then be folded down and held in shape by disulfide bridges, when it is referred to as a protein.
- Proteins are polypeptides, that is, polymers made of strings of amino acids. The actual properties of a protein depend on how the polypeptide folds.
- DNA has four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) on a sugar phosphate polymer backbone. RNA has a similar structure, with uracil instead of thymine.
- In 1990, Krätschmer, Lamb, Fostiropoulos, and Huffman discovered that buckminsterfullerene can be separated from soot because it was soluble in benzene.
- In 1985, Harry Kroto and his colleagues discovered the unusual stability of the carbon-60 buckminsterfullerene molecule and deduced its structure.
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