Welcome to the articles and papers section. On the left hand side there are a series of articles and papers written by three authors, namely, Jane Cull, Prof. Humberto Maturana and a new edition, Dr. Francisco Varela. All of these are relevant to a deeper understanding of not only the theories of living systems, but how they reflect our daily experiences. Below is a brief outline of these papers and articles. Any questions on any of these papers or articles, can be forwarded to Jane Cull.


These articles reflect many understandings, personal experiences and reflections of the author on our present cultural paradigm and that of the experiential worldview (paradigm) of living systems.

There are also two published papers in this section. They are:

The Circularity of Living Systems: The Movement and Direction of Behavior. Published in the first edition of The Journal of Applied Systems Studies, 2000.

The Biology/Psychology of Consciousness: A Circular Perspective. Published in Volume 6, Numbers 1 and 2, The Journal of Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 2001. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Francisco Varela who passed away in 2001.


Permission was given by Prof. Humberto Maturana of the Universidad De Chile (University of Chile), Santiago, to make available three of his papers. These papers were co-written with two other authors, Gerda Verden-Zoeller (The Biology of Love) and Sima Nisis de Rezepka (Human Awareness etc.).

These are probably less technical than some of Maturana's other papers and they also provide a good introduction to the concepts of living systems and their relevance to daily life and education.


Sadly, Dr Francisco Varela passed away in 2001 after a short illness. And it is with honor and gratitude that permission was received from him to put this paper on the LNS site just three weeks before he died. His work on circularity is both amazing and inspiring and will continue on through through the work of many people both here in Australia and overseas. Here are just a couple of highlights from this paper:

"A cell stands out of a molecular soup by defining and specifying boundaries that set it apart from what it is not. However, this specification of boundaries is done through molecular productions made possible through the boundaries themselves. There is, therefore, a mutual specification of chemical transformation and physical boundaries; the cell draws itself out of a homogeneous background."

"...closure of operations whereby products are in the same levels as productions. In fact, within this organization, the usual distinctions between producer and product, beginning and end, or input and output cease making sense."

Please enjoy.