This page contains a collection of recipes from all over the place which people keep asking me for.
16th Century
Jumbles or Knotted Biscuits
16th Century
Knot Biscuits
Shropshire cakes
Tarditional Brigidini from Italy
Bosworth Jumbles
Cornish Fairings
World War II
English Bread Pudding (not yet available)

Bosworth Jumbles

Source:Farm House Cookery. Reciepes fromn the Country Kitchen Readers Digest, 1980

Jumbles were first written about in Elizabethan times, but one story goes that they were a speciality of Richard III’s chef. The recipe for them is said, rather fancifully perhaps, to have been found on the battlefield at Bosworth where Richard was killed and his army routed by Henry Tudor’s forces in 1485.

The name jumble comes from ’gemmel’, a twin finger ring, because the early jumbles were often in the form of two interlaced rings. The almond flavoured version has been popular since the 17th century. Jumbles are particularly delicious when served with Maderia or a sweet wine, as they were at Georgian and early Victorian card parties.

Preperation Time: 20 minutes
Cooking Time: 10 minutes
Pre-heat the oven to
180 C (350 F) Gass Mark 4
Ingredients for about 12 jumbles
5 oz. (150 g.) self-raising flour
1 oz. (25 g.) rice flour
4 oz. (100/125 g.) caster sugar
4 oz. (100/125 g.) butter
1/2 egg
1/2 teaspoon almond essence

Mix the flours and sugar together, and rub in the butter with the fingertipt until the mixture looks like breadcrumbs. Stir in the egg and almond essence, and kneed for about 1 minute until the mixture forms a smooth dough.

Roll the dough out to form a panel about 1/8 in. (3 mm.) thick and 4-5 in. (10-13 cm.) wide. Cut across the panel into 3/4 in. (2 cm.) strips. With floured hands, tie some of these strips into loose, single knots. Form the others into rings.

Place the jumbles on a greased and floured baking sheet well spaced out so that they will not run together while baking. Bake in the pre-heated oven for about 10 minutes, giving them a quarter turn after 5-7 minutes if necessary so that all the jumbles bake evenly.

If you like, relpace 1 oz. (25 g.) of flour with 1 oz. (25 g.) of ground almonds. This gives the jumbles a closer texture and a distinctly, nutty taste. English Bread Pudding Source: My mother. A World War II recipie.
1 stale loaf of bread
1 1/2 cups sugar
10 to 12 oz mixed fruit
1 oz mixed spice
pinch salt
pinch bicarb of soda
1/2 cup butter (or marge) melted
1 or 2 eggs

Method: Soak the bread in water for 20 to 30 minutes. Squeeze out all the water and place the bread in a bowl. Add the sugar, mixed fruit, spice, salt, soda, eggs and stir in the melted margarine. Mix thoroughly. Place in a greased meat tin and bake in a moderate oven for about an hour. Cool, cut into squares for serving.

Tarditional Brigidini from Italy

Source: "The Period Palate" by Johanae Hym Lewis in Tournaments Illuminated (issue unknown at present)

5. Traditional Brigindi from Italy - 3 teaspoons coarsley-ground aniseed, 1 tablespoon olive oil, 2 cups flour, 2 eggs, 10 tablespoons sugar, pinch salt.

Place the flour in the middle of a bowl and to it add the eggs, sugar, salt, ground aniseed, and oil. Using a wooden spoon, mix all the ingredients together until the mixture holds together. Knead the dough for 2-3 minutes and then form into balls. bake in a wafer iron. (OR roll out into a thin layer and cut into the desired shapes. Bake on an oiled sheet for 15 minutes at 375 degrees untill golden-brown.) Yeild: 30.

My notes If you make this wafer too thick you will need a hammer to break it, even dropping into a hot drink may not soften it enough. This makes it good as the "lead" for a stained glass desert. I have used ginger or galingale in place of the aniseed.

Cornish Fairings

Source:Farm House Cookery. Reciepes fromn the Country Kitchen Readers Digest, 1980

During the week after Christmas, a well-patroned “maid-hiring” fair was held in the market town of Launceston, in Cornwall. It was customary to eat or take home ginger-flavoured Cornish Fairings, one of a wide choice of sweet treats sold at the fair.

From late medieval times onward gingerbreads made with breadcrumbs were sold at fairs throughout the country. The crisp ginger biscuits were made rather later.

Cornish Fairings eventually included ginger biscuits sweetened with honey; richly coloured with saffron, liquorice, or sandalwood; and decorated with almonds, marzipan, icing, or gold leaf.

The original Cornish Fairings keep very well in an airtight tin, and have a most attractive cracked, deep goldenbrown appearance.

Preperation Time: 15 minutes
Cooking Time: 10-12 minutes
Pre-heat the oven to
200 C (400 F) Gass Mark 6
Ingredients for about 18 biscuits
8 oz. (225g.) plain flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 level teaspoons baking powder
2 level teaspoons bicarbonate of soda
2 level teaspoons ground mixed spice
3 level teaspoons ground ginger
1 level teaspoons cinnamon
4 oz. (100/125g.) butter or margarine
4 oz. caster sugar
4 tablespoons golden syrup, gently heated

Sieve together the flour, salt, baking powder, bicarbonate of soda, spice, ginger and cinnamon. Rub in the fat with the fingertips until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs and add the sugar. Poor in the syrup and mix thouroughly to a fairly stiff consistancy.

With floured hands, roll the mixture into walnut-sized balls. Place them on a greesed baking sheet well spaced out to allow room to spread. Bake in the pre-heated oven for 10-12 minutes, moving the sheet from the top to the bottom of the oven after 5-7 minutes or as soon as the biscuits start to brown. Leave the fairings to cool for a few minutes on the baking sheet before removing to a cake rack with a spatula or fish slice to stand until cooled completely.

My notes:I have used honey and treacle in place of the golden syrup.

Jumbles or Knotted Biscuits

Source:Food and Cooking in 16th Century Britain History and Recipes
by Peter Brears
English Heritage, 1985
ISBN 1 85074 082 8

To make Iombils a hundred: Take twenty Egges and put them into a pot both the yolks & the white, beat them wel, then take a pound of beaten suger and put to them, and stirre them wel together, then put to it a quarter of a peck of flower, and make a hard paste thereof, and then with Anniseeds moulde it well, and make it in little rowles beeing long, and tye them in knots, and wet the ends in Rosewater, then put them in a pan of seething water, but in one warm, then take them out with a Skimmer and lay them in a cloth to drie, this being don lay them in a tart panne, the bottome beeing oyled, then put them into a temperat Oven for one howre, turning them often in the Oven.

2 eggs
4 oz (100 g) sugar
1 tsp (5 ml) aniseed or caraway seed
6 oz (175 g) plain flour

Beat the eggs in a 2 pint (1.1 litre) basin, then beat in the sugar, the aniseed or caraway, and finally the flour, thus forming a stiff dough. Knead the dough on a lightly floured board, and form into rolls approximately 3/8 inch (1 cm) in diameter by 4 inches (10 cm) in length. Tie each of these in a simple knot and plunge them, five or six at atime, into a pan of boiling water, where they inll immediately sink to the bottom. After a short time dislodge the knots from the bottom of the pan with a spoon so that they float and swell for a minute or two. Then lift the knots out with a perforated spoon, and allow them to drain on a clean tea-towel laid over a wire rack. Arrange the knots on lightly buttered baking sheets and bake for 15 minutes at gas mark 4, 350F (180C), then turn the knots over and return to the oven for 10-15 minutes until golden.

Thomas Dawson: The good huswifes Jewell, pt. 2

Knot Biscuits

Source:Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain History and Recipes
by Peter Brears
English Heritage, 1985
ISBN 1 85074 083 6

To make Knotts or Gumballs: Take 12 Yolkes of Egges, & 5 Whites, a pound of searced Sugar, half a pound of Butter washed in Rose Water, 3 quarters of an ounce of Mace finely beaten, a little Salt dissolved in Rose Water, half an ounce of Caroway-seeds, Mingle all theise together with as much Flower as will worke it up in paste, & soe make it Konttes or Rings or What fashion you please. Bake them as Bisket-bread, but upon Pye-plates.

1.5 oz (40 g) butter
1 tbls (15 ml) rosewater
4 oz (100 g) sugar
2 eggs beaten
1 tsp (5 ml) ground mace
1 tsp (5 ml) aniseed
1 tsp (5 ml) caraway seed
8 oz (225 g) flour

Beat the butter with the rosewater, then cream with the sugar. Mix in the beaten eggs and spices, then work in the flour to make a stiff dough. Make into long rolls about 1/4 inch (5 mm) in diameter, and form into knots, rings, or plaited strips before baking on lightly greased baking sheets for 15-20 minutes at gas mark 4, 350 F (180 C).

Henry Fairfax: Arcana Fairfaxiana

Shropshire cakes

Source:Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain History and Recipes
by Peter Brears
English Heritage, 1985
ISBN 1 85074 083 6

To make a Shropsheere cake: Take two pound of dryed flour after it has been searced fine, one pound of good sugar dried and searced, also a little beaten sinamon or some nottmegg greeted and steeped in rose water; so straine two eggs, whites and all, not beaten to it, as much unmelted butter as will work it to a paste: so mould it & roule it into longe rouses, and cutt off as much at a time as will make a cake, two ounces is enough for one cake: then roule it in a ball between your hands; so flat it on a little white paper cut for a cake, and with your hand beat it about as big as a cheese trancher and a little thicker than a past board then prick them with a comb not too deep in squares like diamons and prick the cake in every diamon to the bottom; so take them in a oven not too hot: when they rise up white let them soake a little, then draw. If the sugar be dry enough you need not dry it but searce it: you must brake in your eggs after you have wroat in some of your butter into your flower: prick and mark them when thy are cold: this quantily will make a dozen and two or three, which is enough for my own at a time: take off the paper when they are cold.

8 oz (225 g) butter
1 lb (450g)flour
8 oz (225 g) caster sugar
1/4 tsp (1.5 ml) grated nutmeg
1 egg
1 tsp (5 ml) rosewater

Rub the butter into the dry ingredients, then work in the egg and rosewater to form a very stiff dough. Cut off lumps of dough, and work into 1/4 inch (5 mm) thick cakes, 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter. Using a comb, mark the top sufface into diamonds, cutting half-way through the cake, then use a broad skewer to prick through the centre of each diamond. Transfer to baking sheets, and bake for 20 minutes at gas mark 4, 3500F (1800C). Remove from the sheets with a metal spatula, and place on a wire tray to cool.

Madam Susanne Avery: A Plain Plantain