This is one of several pages relating to the history of the automatic tote, its invention in 1913, the inventor George Julius and the Australian company he founded in 1917 which became a monopoly in this field ( later an oligopoly ). This page contains several extracts from company magazines and brochures including Tote Topics which was the Automatic Totalisator's quarterly magazine. If you wish to start from the beginning then go to the index
|Tote Topics and other magazine articles|
Tote Topics was the name of the company's quarterly magazine. Some extracts from these and other company magazines follow. They give some further insight into the company's business activities.
|Autumn 1978 General Managers introduction in Tote Topics|
We are now generally known as a technology company, and this is indicative of the tremendous advances made in the racing industry over the last several years. Microprocessors and computers are now an integral part of the sport. The same technology we use on the racetrack can be applied to other areas of money handling or revenue control, such as automatic fare collection on railways, car parking fee control, etc. and these are the areas into which ATL is expanding, in both the U.S. and Australasia.
Other applications for our technology are being developed - for example we have currently manufactured and released the 4800 Visual Display Unit described in this issue. As a general purpose computer terminal, it has many features that are new and innovative. As well, our U.S. company is developing a non mechanical printing technique which will have wide application in on and off track betting terminals, and in other ticketing functions.
These and other developments will ensure that ATL continues to be a leader in technology, thus continuing the traditions established sixty years ago.
|Autumn 1977 Tote Topics - Greyhounds head for Guam|
Guam Greyhounds Inc. a company formed to start Greyhound racing in Guam made a spectacular airlift on Sunday January 16th 1977. The passengers on a chartered Cathay Pacific Boeing 707 were 300 dogs, five trainers and a noted Sydney greyhound breeder as general manager of the new project.
With them in the Cathay Pacific freighter went $A400,000 of computerised totalisator equipment supplied by Automatic Totalisators Limited which will handle the betting operations for the company.
Three of Automatic Totalisators technicians from Australia were already in Guam ready to receive and help install the new "tote" and train the operators.
General Manager Mr. Norm Smith is a breeding expert and was formerly President of the Greyhound Breeders and Owners Association in Sydney.
The immediate role of the dogs will be to race but they will also provide the basis for a future breeding stock. To give the dogs time to become accustomed gradually to the new environment the Boeing also carried food and powdered milk to keep them going for a month.
This is not the first export of Greyhounds from Australia overseas but it is the first time such a complete cargo has gone to its destination non-stop with cargo and passengers all ready to go.
|Summer 1978/1979 Tote Topics - Racing in Teheran|
Thoroughbred racing commenced in Teheran on 22nd June, 1978 at Farahabad Racecourse. Built in a natural bowl set on the desert fringe of the snow capped Alborz Mountains, about 15 kilometres from the centre of Teheran, the racecourse has a crowd capacity of 30,000 patrons, with a three-decked grandstand to accommodate 12,000.
The members' area is air-conditioned throughout and provision has been made for luxuriously furnished private boxes, including a huge private area for the Shah.
The 1,600 metre track has a river sand surface with well graded turns adequately accommodating fields to 14 starters.
A large number of Australians are involved in the forty million dollar venture.
A leading trainer in South Australia and Victoria, is racing consultant to the Company and A former Adelaide racing Journalist, is the Racing Manager. In addition, Veterinary Surgeons, Stipendiary Stewards, Trainers Jockeys and the Deputy tote Manager are Australians.
Staff, trainers and jockeys are housed in 72 apartments alongside the racecourse. There are stables for 500 horses and above the stables are grooms quarters for 300 stableboys.
250 thoroughbreds from Australia, New Zealand and England were air lifted in by charter flights for racing. This number will increase to 400 thoroughbreds and 100 Turkomans - a pony sized Middle East breed - within 18 months.
Evening racing has been conducted during the summer months. This will change to afternoons as the weather cools.
An ATL Mobile Totalisator is installed so that as other racetracks open it can be moved to service each new location. It is a computerised system using J17 TIMS.
Initially Win, Place and Quinella pools are operating and Doubles and Trifecta pools will be introduced as patrons become accustomed to the facilities.
The ATL Manager Australasian Operations was seconded to the new club for a period to train local people in the operation of the totalisator systems. 250 local people were trained in selling/paying, banking and overall totalisator operations in 10 weeks.
The picture taken by the Operations Manager gives an idea of how the new racecourse looked just before the opening meeting.
The ATL manager mentioned above Bruce Rutter, later became General Manager of ATL. He had a suitcase which he took on each of his numerous overseas business trips. After seeing some remnant luggage tags left on the handle he decided to leave them there in future as a gauge of the amount of travelling he was doing. Eventually the case boasted so many remnant destination tags it started to become difficult to carry. The case made a statement, "this case belongs to a very frequent traveller". He carried it with pride. He was horrified when a well meaning secretary cut them all off. Reduced to the status of ab-initio traveller. The amount of required travel was a problem that applied to many of the staff, spending large amounts of time away from home.
|Singapore (Extract from ATL booklet The Computer Tote 1974)|
The Singapore Turf Club and Automatic Totalisators Limited were associated with one another long before the computer tote was ever thought of. That association goes back as far as 1926, in the days of the T-model ford, when the club commissioned A.T.L to install its first Electro-mechanical Totalisator. As the popularity of racing in Singapore grew, so did the demands on the Club's totalisator operations and over the years additional equipment has been installed to keep its on-course betting service to the public continuously updated.
Last year, when the progressive Singapore Turf Club decided to go electronic and install a Totalisator System with a capacity to meet its rapidly growing turnover in betting it selected A.T.L's newest computer system.
The A.T.L Computer Totalisator System using two Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11 Computers is flexible and capable of any required expansion to meet future growth.
The Singapore computer tote caters for standard betting pools, Win, Place and Forecast with a current capacity of 256 Ticket Issuing Machines.
The Computer Room in Singapore
|More of The Singapore Turf Club (Extracts from Tote Topics Winter 1978)|
The Singapore Turf Club was founded in 1842 as the Singapore Sporting Club. It initiated organised horse racing in South East Asia and it has remained vigorous in developing and organising the sport.
The first recorded race in the region was The Singapore Cup, valued at $S150, and won by W.H.M. Read - a great sporting figure for years - on The Colonel.
The Sporting Club became the Turf Club in 1924 and moved in 1933 to Bukit Timah. Today the club races on a course and with facilities matching the best in the world. Laid out in 350 acres of park like grounds, it has its own reservoirs - a great asset in Singapore a city that draws its main water supply from Malaysia.
There is stabling accommodation for over 650 horses and numerous training tracks and a horse swimming pool. The main racing track is 1968 metres in length. Races are run between distances of 1200 metres and 2400 metres. There is also a modern Equine Hospital with its own operating theatre, isolation stables and laboratory.
There are approximately 2,500 people dependent on racing living on the property. The Club houses its own labour force in a model village with shops, mosque and temple. Racing facilities include the most modern types of Totalisator Equipment. There is Photo Finish and Camera Patrol Equipment with closed-circuit colour television which provides a complete coverage of the races by television and cine-cameras. The grandstand affords excellent facilities to racegoers and has seating for more than 5,000 people. There are electric lifts and escalators serving all floors, some of which are partly air conditioned.
The A.T.L. Electronic Totalisator installation is geared to operate on race meetings in Singapore and also operates when race meetings are held in Malaya. The club also operates betting terminals at their office in Cecil Street from 9A.M. up to the last race. This office is many miles from the course. Win, Place and Forecast tickets are on sale at all Pay-in windows. ...
I recall a trip to Singapore to assist with a Totalisator demonstration to be conducted on Digital Equipment Corporation's premises. We organised a taxi on the day of the demonstration, the Research and Development Manager, Phil White sat in the front and the Marketing Manager John Pickering and myself sat in the back. The R&D manager delivered a greeting to the taxi driver followed by a suburb name. This was met by silence and an expressionless face. The taxi driver could not speak English and did not recognise the suburb. The R&D manager gave a street name with the same result. The company's frequent travellers generally prided themselves on their knowledge of these foreign ports and the R&D manager took on the challenge of conveying to the taxi driver our destination. He tried neighbouring suburbs and roads near the destination without any response. He remembered a large hospital across the road from our destination however after naming it, the drivers expressionless face and silence persisted. The R&D manager really thought he had solved the problem when he remembered the Ferrari dealer on the ground floor of the building we needed to get to. Surprisingly the name Ferrari did not solicit any recognition. Finally after ten minutes of grappling with the problem, in desperation, the R&D manager turned to us and gasped "I don't think we are ever going to get to Digital". The taxi driver's head swung around, his eyes ablaze he exclaimed "Ah you want go Digital"!
|Philippines (Extract from ATL booklet The Computer Tote 1974)|
Each Club has installed the PDP 11 Computer Totalisator System which is handling its present totalisator turnover speedily and reliably.
A new betting Pool was introduced with the installation of their computer totes. Betting requirements are 14 starters, Win, Place, Quinella and Doubles.
New Style J11 and J17/3 ticket issuing machines are used in conjunction with their existing J10 machines.
The computer systems at San Lazaro and Santa Ana have both been expanded since their initial installation.
Both clubs have a projected plan of growth which is ideally catered for by the modular expansion concept of the A.T.L. computer tote.
Both clubs are associates of A.T.L from as far back as 1937 when the company installed the first totalisator equipment in the Philippines. New equipment was installed at both Courses soon after the war ended, as popularity of racing widened, the equipment of the club has been continually updated to handle new pools and increased betting turnover.
With the installation of computer totes, the clubs have further expanded their facilities and are both in a unique position to meet the growing demands of the Philippines racing public.
Note - May 1998, I have just returned from an installation in Manila, where I heard the following story from John Pickering.
Doug Nichol was an installation engineer sent to Manila by Automatic Totalisators to install electro mechanical totalisator systems at the Manila Jockey Club and the Philippine Racing Club prior to World War Two.
During the Japanese occupation, he was released from internment during the week ends, so that he could operate the totalisator system.
He lived the rest of his life in the Philippines, never returning to live in Australia. He did visit the Johnson family in Sydney after WW2. He was virtually adopted by the Manila Jockey Club which looked after him in his old age.
Doug Nichol was an installation engineer sent to Manila by Automatic Totalisators to install electro mechanical totalisator systems at the Manila Jockey Club and the Philippine Racing Club prior to World War Two.
During the Japanese occupation, he was released from internment during the week ends, so that he could operate the totalisator system.
He lived the rest of his life in the Philippines, never returning to live in Australia. He did visit the Johnson family in Sydney after WW2. He was virtually adopted by the Manila Jockey Club which looked after him in his old age.
Evidently the needs for a tote transcend the dictates of war! Nice to hear that Doug's efforts were both appreciated and rewarded by the jockey club.
|Melbourne (Extract from ATL booklet The Computer Tote 1974)|
Melbourne, Australia's financial capital and home of its richest horse race, the Melbourne Cup, is the first city in the southern Hemisphere to have its racecourses, tracks and paceways served by a mobile computer totalisator system.
A.T.L has designed a comprehensive Mobile Computer Unit which handles the complete on-course betting operations of the seven turf, trotting and greyhound venues which serve the Melbourne metropolitan area. There are -
Eventually the modern and versatile mobile computer tote system will also serve surrounding provincial racing clubs. Like A.T.L's PDP 11 fixed totalisator installations, described herein on other pages, the mobile computer tote unit will be capable of meeting future growth requirements of the network of racing clubs it will serve.
The revolutionary new mobile and interchangeable electronic totalisator system for Melbourne comprises 2 Mobile Computer Units, each van being identical and containing 2 computers.
As well as providing increased benefits for existing Pools the new computer tote enables the introduction of automated Trio betting to Australian racetracks.
Trio is the selection of the first three horses in one race.
Each mobile unit is capable of providing betting accommodation for Win, Place, Quinella, Doubles and Trio for up to 24 starters.
Melbourne's new computer tote system involves the use of up to 192 J8 ticket issuing machines - 128 J10's and 64 new J18/3 ticket issuing machines for Trio betting and multi value betting on standard Pools.
A smaller version of the mobile computer tote unit has been successfully introduced to the Hawke Bay circuit in New Zealand.
|Mornington - Extract from Tote Topics Autumn 1978|
This club was formed in the late 1890's and race meetings were held at Beleura Hill which is the present site of the Mornington Golf Club. In 1913 the Club moved to its present site and an additional property was purchased in the late 1940's to add to the existing area.
Mornington is some 30-odd miles from Melbroune and is situated on the shores of Port Phillip Bay.
The army occupied the course in 1939 at the outbreak of World War 2 to use as a signals depot and handed it back to the club in 1946. 1n 1947 Sir Reginald Ansett K.B.E. (then Mr. R.M. Ansett) called a meeting at the Federal Hotel, Melbourne to reform the club and the first race meeting was held on 4th December, 1947. At this meeting Sir Reginald was appointed as Chairman of the Club, a position he still holds.
The Club now claims to have the best country Racecourse in Victoria and it is renowned for its beautiful lawns and gardens and shady trees that give a lovely picnic feeling which adds to the days outing.
The years feature race is the Mornington Cup run in February over 2,000 metres. It is a handicap event of $7,000 and $500 trophies. First horse receives $4,550 and trophies of $400, $50 and $50 to owner, trainer and jockey.
Mornington Racing Club introduced computer tote betting for the first time on a Country Racecourse including new pools of Trio and Trifecta betting ($1.00 minimum). Trio, Doubles and Quinella are sold at the red windows and Win and Place - Doubles and Quinellas at the green windows.
The Club has the largest membership (1150) of any country club in Victoria.
In 1973 a public grandstand was completed at a cost of $450,000. In March this year work will commence on improvements to the members grandstand and facilities at a cost of $550,000. In 1976 extensive improvements to training facilities were completed at a cost of $170,000 and there are now two grass and two sand tracks available for training for the 250 to 300 horses in work at the track.
In July 1976 A.T.L. electronic totalisator equipment was used for the first time and in December, 1977, an A.T.L. electronic indicator board was installed.
The highlight of a recent meeting held on the 18th January was the visit of the champion racehorse Reckless. At this meeting on-course totalisator holdings were $186,592 (local races) beating the previous record by $10,000, and $21,863. (Sydney races).
Since 1958 the Club has run steeplechases over the unique figure 8 course where the horses race across the centre of the course.
|Extracts from Sandown Park - Tote Topics Autumn 1978|
It is interesting to interview the only lady manager of a greyhound racing club in Australia and maybe world wide. Mrs Marg Scarlett has all the enthusiasm and energy to run and promote the sport.
A recent promotion that Marg Scarlett lined up was the Sir Arthur Rylah Saphire Classic Sandown Sweethearts competition.
The Club's Contest Conditions Were As Follows -
If you are young and in love and wish to become engaged to the girl of your dreams, then you are eligible to enter.
5 couples will be selected from letters received, to be our guests at Sandown Park for the semifinals of the Sir Arthur Rylah Sapphire Classic, on Thursday 2nd February 1978. One lucky couple will become the 'Sandown Sweethearts'
The Sir Arthur Rylah Spphire Classic is for puppies whelped between 1.1.76 and 30.6.76 and carries prizemoney totalling $12,000 plus a presentation rug and a lovely sapphire and diamond trophy - either a ring or a brooch.
ATL also installed automatic turnstiles at Sandown Park which were first used on Thursday 6th January, 1977 and have proved to be a great success now that patrons have become familiar with the token system.
General Information Sandown Greyhound Racing Club (Commonly known as Sandown Park)
They conduct 10 races every Thursday night.
Wagering to suit all with Trifecta, Quinella, Race to Race Doubles, last race Forecast.
Colour racing action is displayed throughout the course, featuring instant replays and direct colour telecast of all ten Adelaide greyhound races.
Country and Interstate - Sandown is the only track where you can bet on Shepparton, Warrnambool, Adelaide and Brisbane greyhounds every Thursday night.
The tote averages $170,000 on course turnover and the off-course $500,000
|Perth (Extract from ATL booklet The Computer Tote 1974)|
It introduced greyhound racing in the state of Western Australia in a very special way...at a track served entirely by an on-course Computer totalisator System designed and installed by Automatic Totalisators Limited. No bookmakers. It is the first major track in Australia to be designed exclusively for greyhound racing in conjunction with a computer totalisator operation.
The Cannington central racetrack, newest showplace of Australian greyhound racing, provides modern and unique facilities for the public. One special feature is the " showcase " computer room, designed to give the public a view of the computer totalisator system in operation.
Another feature is the impressive computer-controlled lampbox indicator which will show up to the minute odds, results and dividends within viewing distance of almost every part of the track.
The Cannington computer tote will cater for ten starters, Win, Place and Quinella. The system involves the use of A.T.L.'s J8 and J10 ticket issuing machines with an immediate capacity of 128 machines.
|Cannington Central - Tote Topics Autumn 1977|
A $40,000 building, a unique design and access to the best totlaisator facilities in the State of Western Australia ...........(So says the "Sunday Independent" in December 1976).
The fully computerised totalisator system, with its $180,000 indicator board is years ahead of its rival racing bodies.
A two year tax free government loan and the recent introduction of Trifecta betting has ensured the club will be able to pay its own way.
The Canning Greyhound Association is looking for a solid base - a gradual improvement based on a long-term future.
With this in mind the centre oval has been prepared and leased on the W.A. Rugby Football League where matches will be played each Sunday during the season.
When the first trifecta dividend at Cannington Central paid $1076.10 it guaranteed the success of the new novelty betting. It opened the gate to the rainbow which has attracted thousands of punters, big and small, to a form of novelty betting unequalled in the State.
The Managing Secretary Mr. Lew Dorsa is most enthusiastic about the development of this project and judging by the crowds at each meeting it really fulfils an entertainment gap.
With a ten race program starting with the first race at 7.40 pm the concluding race is timed to start at 10.40 pm.
Visitors marvel at the magnificent appointments in the stand and the club claims to have the finest illuminated track in Australia specifically designed and built for dog racing.
The Grandstand has a capacity for 5,000 people, three modern fast-food outlets, a 300 capacity, fully tiered a la carte restaurant, an excellent committee room with private bar and a pleasure-land for children.
|Seventh Asian Racing Conference Wellington N.Z.|
The Julius Tote Indicator at Trentham
The old Julius tote barometer odds indicators and grand total indicators are still looking good on the side of this tote building at Trentham Racecourse Wellington in the above photograph taken in September 2007. These were part of the Julius tote mentioned in this article.
These are extracts from Tote Topics Number 14 - Feb 1968 Titled Seventh Asian Racing Conference Wellington, New Zealand 15th-25th Jan, 1968
Before going to New Zealand for the Seventh Asian Racing Conference let us first take a brief look at the history of the A.R.C.
A.R.C. or Asian Racing Conference proper was founded after the first Tokyo Convention in 1960 and since then it has been held in Singapore, Australia, Philippines, India and Thailand. New Zealand will complete the circuit and next year the A.R.C. will start a new round with the eighth conference in Tokyo. The objectives of the gathering are to create better understanding and exchange of information and experiences relative to all phases of horse racing.
The Seventh A.R.C. opened in Wellington N.Z. on Tuesday 16th January, 1968 with a flag raising ceremony at Trentham racecourse in the presence of about 300 visitors from 10 countries. It was a very colourful occasion with many visitors dressed in their national costume. Flags representing Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, The Philippines, Thailand, the U.S.A. and N.Z. were ceremonially raised by members of the Royal N.Z. Air Force, the band of which played the appropriate national anthems. ...
Mr. B.H. Crowley Chairman of the A.J.C. spoke on the joint ownership of race horses and mentioned a rather humourous incident where a total of 64 university students owned a race horse in Sydney. He admitted that this was an extreme case and stressed that it was important to limit the number of owners in order to control the legal side of owning and racing a race horse. ...
To conclude the session a short film was shown on Totalisator installations around the world. This film was made available to A.T.L. Sydney Australia. ...
Saturday 20th January was the day that most delegates had been eagerly awaiting, it was the first day of the 1968 Wellington Cup Carnival at Trentham Racecourse and the first opportunity for most delegates to experience horse racing in N.Z. Trentham Racecourse is one of the five principal N.Z. racecourses, it is owned and operated by the Wellington Racing Club and is situated in a picturesque rural area, approximately 18 miles from Wellington. The first race was due to start at 11.30 am and delegates and wives began arriving at the racecourse at about 10.30 am. The racecourse was bathed in sunshine and everything was in favour for a pleasant day at the races. ...
The totalisator is the only legal form of betting on racecourses in N.Z. as it is in Asian Countries. The first totalisator at Trentham was installed in 1920 by A.T.L. Sydney and while the equipment has been updated over the years there is still equipment in use today which was manufactured over thirty years ago and all the present day equipment which was manufactured by A.T.L. is maintained in immaculate condition. Delegates interested in the totalisator were taken on a tour of inspection but while the equipment was a real eyecatcher, especially in the machine room, it was not entirely new to the majority because similar equipment is installed on their own racecourses.
To get back to the race meeting, the main race of the day was the Wellington Cup but to the 7th A.R.C. delegates the Wellington Stakes was of great interest because the winner of this race received a very attractive silver cup which was donated by the Malayan Racing Association - Singapore and presented by delegates from these clubs. One interesting point about the meeting was that immediately the horses passed the winning post the dividends appeared on the infield indicator and on investigation it was found that it is permissible to display this information before the official results are declared.
|Racing in New Zealand Part III Tote Topics|
This is an extract from Tote Topics Number 31 - July 1969
Racing and Trotting meetings are widely decentralised throughout the Dominion. The majority of on-course Totalisators are operated by Automatic Totalisators Limited and its subsidiary Company, New Zealand Totalisators Limited. During the year ended 30.6.68 A.T.L. and its subsidiary operated the Totalisator for 92 clubs from which a turnover of nearly $31,000,000 was handled at some 300 meetings. The remaining $18,000,000 of 'On course' turnover was handled by James Totalisators ltd., Portable Electric Totalisators Ltd., The Auckland Racing Club, The Wellington Racing Club and the Canterbury Jockey Club. These racing clubs use equipment manufactured by A.T.L. and the Auckland Racing Club has in addition the distinction of being the first club in the world to install an automatic totalisator. Their equipment was manufactured and installed in 1913 under the supervision of Sir George Julius, the founder of Automatic Totalisators Ltd.
|The Durban Turf Club - Tote Topics Winter 1978|
A magnificently dressed Durban Rickshaw Man
I felt compelled to include the above photo that accompanied this article as it is so impressive.
In July 1884 Durban's first race meeting was held, and the population was agog with excitement. Ropes and flags indicated the finishing straight and the rest of the course was marked with flags. Wagons out-spanned along the make-shift course and the ladies in all their finery watched from there. The judges' stand was an inverted packing case and a bugler of the Sherwood Foresters sounded the start of each race, while other soldiers were ordered to keep the finish clear of dogs.
As time went by, the organisation of these primitive meetings steadily improved and in 1884 the lease of the race course was bought by the Grand Stand Company. The Company improved the course and erected a grandstand which was used for many years.
The Durban Turf Club was formed in March 1897. The Annual subscription fee was fixed at 5 guineas, a fee which remains unchanged today. The Turf Club held its first meeting in July, 1897.
By early this century membership was steadily increasing and the July Handicap was becoming recognised as the premier turf event in South Africa. The Club held 24 meetings a year and the future of racing in Durban seemed assured.
During the 1914-1918 War, special meetings were held for the benefit of War funds and the relief of distress in Britain, France and Belgium. In 1917-1918 a fund was established to provide financial assistance to members and others who enlisted in the forces. At the same time the Stewards inaugurated a voluntary 2.5% tax on totaliastor takings. This money, plus sums voted from the Club funds, was donated to patriotic funds and charities. A similar pattern was followed during 1939-45 when the entire profits were donated by the Stewards to the war effort.
An interesting survival of tradition, which is unique in South Africa, is the 'Durban Club Tent' at the Greyville racecourse. In 1873 the Durban Club accepted the offer of the loan of a tent for the races. Over the years the 'tent' became an institution, and graduated to a marquee, then a canvas-covered structure, a light wooden frame building, and ultimately the substantial brick structure which was built in 1954.
Greyville, the Durban Turf Club's course, is situated almost in the centre of the city. The track is pear shaped, covering a distance of one and three-quarter miles with an average width of 90 feet. The course is bisected by a main traffic highway which passes under the track at two points through bridged subways. Within its perimeter is the Royal Durban Golf course, of international standard. A permanent field staff of 78 maintains the track and grounds, and on race day this staff is considerably augmented by gate attendants, security officers, car park supervisors and other part-time employees.
Totalisator betting on the course itself is completely mechanised. There are 150 win and place ticket machines and more than 50 doubles-dupla machines.
Nine races are run during meetings. There are win-and-place pools on all races; two daily doubles (on the third and fourth races and the seventh and eighth); dupla pools on four races (the first, fifth, sixth and ninth); a jackpot (betting on winners of the last four races); and a place accumulator (betting on winners of the last four races); and a place accumulator (betting on placed horses in the last seven races).
Off-course Totalisator Betting was discussed as far back as 1952, and in 1958 the Racing and Betting Ordinance was amended to permit Licensed Racing Clubs to conduct Off-Course Totalisator Betting. Since 1960 this has been controlled by the Natal Totalisator Agency Board, whose members represent the Province's three racing clubs and the Natal Provincial Administration. There are branches or agencies throughout Natal which accept all types of betting operated on the racecourses, but their doors must be closed one hour before the starting time of the first race of the day. Off-Course totalisator investments are included in the pools at the different racecourses, so that all totalisator investors receive the same dividends whether they are bet on course or off.
The Durban Turf Club is the largest racing in South Africa and holds 23 meetings throughout the year. The Winter Season is the zenith of racing in Natal and from the end of May to early August the best horses in the country come to Durban to compete for the attractive prize money offered by the club. The Great Winter Meeting - the most important of the three winter meetings is held in July each year. The highlight of this is the July Handicap, which has become a national event. The whole country becomes caught up in 'July Fever' and Durban is crammed with visitors from all over South Africa who come specially for the meeting. The July Handicap was first run in 1897 over one mile for a stake of 500 sovereigns. Today the race is run over a distance of 2200m, for a stake of R75,000, a special Totalisator condition applicable to this race only. Dividend will be paid on horse placed 4th if 12 or more horses weigh-out. 1st R48750, 2nd R15000, 3rd R7500, 4th R3750. In 1977 18 starters accepted for this race.
Mr. M.J. Campion Assistant Secretary was very helpful to the editor in supplying the detail as outlined. He also expressed his Club's satisfaction with all the ATL equipment and their service.
|Turffontein - Extracts from Tote Topics Autumn 1978|
Torffontein's history dates back to the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand and the pioneers who flocked there in 1886 to grab their share of the yellow harvest.
Ingrained in these rough and ready men was a love of gambling, and most preferred to be on a running horse rather than the turn of a card. So in 1887 the first Johannesburg Summer Handicap forerunner of the Holiday Inns R100,000 was staged with the start near where Motortown is today. The finish was in the vicinity of today's intersection of Eloff and Commissioner Streets.
The race was won by 'Haco' and ridden by Bundy, some of the bets which were held by 'stakeholders' were laid and paid in gold dust or nuggets.
The Stewards of the newly formed Johannesburg Turf Club were far sighted enough to realise that the venue for their first races couldn't last very long - the mining settlement of Johannesburg was growing rapidly - so they leased a portion of the farm Turffontein for 3,000 pounds a year, and in 1893 laid the foundation of the original Turffontein Grandstand which still stands today, but will be demolished when Section 3 of the New Complex is built.
In 1929 the Johannesburg Turf Club purchased the Race Course from Village Deep Ltd., for 28,000 pounds. The Club wasted no time in turning the bare veld into a racecourse and had it ready for the next Johannesburg Summer Handicap. Turffontein has been the home of the race right up to 1972 when the name was changed and it became the 'Holiday Inns', the richest horse-race in South Africa. The first two years at Turffontein were expensive ones for the Johannesburg Turf Club, and it found itself deep in the red. But somehow the stewards bailed it out and nine years later it was making good money. Then came the South African War and the Club closed until it ended in 1902.
As Johannesburg grew into a city, Turffontein expanded again and again to cater for the increasing number of racegoers. Then in 1935 the Jahannesburg Turf Club created racing history by installing the first automatic tote in the country. It gave good service until the new computerised totalisator was installed by ATL and commissioned during October 1974. Mr. Christie said he was very proud of their new ATL Computerised totalisator and it was proving a great boom to punters.
The old tote was not discarded but moved to the Mashonaland Turf Club in Rhodesia and it is now giving good service to the punters there.
When pony and galloway racing came to an end in South Africa in 1954, the Johannesburg Pony and Galloway Club which had conducted race meetings, and been associated with Turffontein since 1895, changed its name to the Transvaal Racing Club. Today, Turffontein is the headquarters for both the Johannesburg Turf Club and the Transvaal Racing Club, and is controlled by the Turffontein Race Course Management Committee which consists of 3 Stewards from each Club.
I have just had a typical demonstration of what I mentioned above about tote veteran horror stories. I sent Ian's email to Neville Mitchell who had first hand experience with the Turffontein Project. Apart from filling in some gaps in memory, he offered the following recollection of an on-line tote problem. "The episode of estimating the dividend on a fouled up tote, reminds me of a night at Bankstown Trots. I was working the doubles system all was running ok then I noticed that the paper tape was not incrementing and there was now a large "Slot" cut across the paper tape, I stopped the machine repaired the broken increment pawl and restarted betting, The three elderly guys in charge of the meeting estimated the dividend based on previous knowledge. On wash up we were only down by 5 cents per payout. I was unsettled by this event as My pie & Sauce had gone Cold!!" Following are extracts from Ian's email.
I saw your web site when researching my old workplace at Turffontein race course in Sth Africa. I was the tote engineer there from its installation in the early 1970's until I left about 5 years later. I was hired into the job as I was a telecommunications engineer with experience in electromechanical switching. (The old tote was a Siemens system build with uni-selectors).
The club at that time had decided to do a major upgrade under the watch of Sandy Christie and this included a new grandstand and tote complex. After recruitment, three of us were shipped to ATL in Meadowbank for 3 months for product training as well as attending Digital PDP 11 courses in Artarmon. We had a project engineer from Meadowbank come over to Sth Africa, Fred Escort, who was in fact English and was taunted greatly by his Oz counterparts.
The ATL person that sticks out in my mind most is Colin Thomas a key programmer that also came over to set up and commission the system. (I believe I did see a reference to Colin in one of your ATL documents, but have now failed to find it. He was a bright skinny energetic person as I recall).
I have many stories to tell of these early days but one stands out. As mentioned in your history of Turffontein, they have (had) an annual Holiday Inns handicap. This I guess was the equivalent of the Melbourne cup at the time. As it was race 5 on the card, we took early bets on the race from Race 1 at special dedicated windows. When betting opened on Race 5 the idea was that the collected pool would be added to the current race betting and we would continue selling from there. This was not to be as the PDP 11 simply crashed and stopped all bets across the track. I recall vividly the CEO, Sandy Christie coming into the computer room ashen faced and pleaded for us to "do something". In the end we simply dropped the power to the infield odd indicator, stopped the feeds to the race TV screens and reset the computer from scratch to reopen betting. We took all bets on the race but did not show any odds as the computer was now incorrect. We managed to pay out at race end, by the skills of a clever auditor we had on track (two were on track every race day to audit the tote). With a bit of thumb sucking and pencil chewing he came up with the payout figures for each horse at race end. On the final tally up a week later, he was only out by about 5% in his pool and payout calculations. This bomb out, caused Colin to come back over to Sth Africa to do a post mortem. Seems that despite our rigorous pre race testing, we could never have found the fault as it was some kind of buffer overflow due to the high volume of betting...
Finally the reference in your notes to "Tote to Rhodesia" was correct as the outgoing engineer, Jimmy recovered all of the two motion stuff and the in track indicator flaps and had them shipped to Salisbury (now Harare). I often wonder what happened to all of the people of that time. I am now retired and live in Hong Kong. I do love to visit Happy Valley on a Wed night to see the races under lights.
Following are some more extracts from Ian's second email.
A bit of background re Turffontein. It was of course a Sell only system and had a mix of J8's and J18/2's as I recall. We did not have a full complement of TIM's and so shared them with the nearby track at Germiston. They raced Wednesday and we did Saturdays. So Thursday was fit-out day of the J18's and on Monday they were loaded onto the truck for the return journey to Germiston. The photo on your web site of the Singapore installation is pretty much a carbon copy of Turffontein from what I can judge from the photo.
As tote engineer, I had no involvement with the payout and cash side of the operations. This fell to the tote manager who handled all cash, balances and fraud issues. Although we did get consulted in fraud matters to ascertain the validity of the ticket in question. On that topic we did learn a valuable lesson regarding security of TIM's. Initially to save time on a Saturday morning the mechanics preloaded the TIM's with the "paper of the day" and set up the 5 letter drum codes in the TIM's all ready for Race 1 on Saturday. Over time we noticed leakage, for which we could not account, as the tickets that were presented were all real and valid. However they all came from a set of TIM's in the members area we believed. It was a while before we latched onto an old guy who used to walk his dog at the track and would often nod and say hello on the way past. It turned out that he was making a detour through the selling hall in the members and had learned how to open and "turnover" a TIM to produce a ticket for every horse in Race 1 as the paper and drums were all pre loaded. When we stopped the practice of Friday afternoon pre-loads, it stopped. A security lesson for us as we were much too slack in our machine and booth security between race days...
|Bahrenfeld Germany - Quarterly Magazine July 1979|
Quarterly was a publication of Autotote Limited. This American company used to be a subsidiary of Automatic Totalisators Ltd. It started out as ATUSA a mnemonic for Automatic Totalisators USA and changed its name to Autotote. I well remember the J25 terminals at the Brisbane metropolitan tracks, which are mentioned in this article. I visited Autotote in Philadelphia in 1983. At that time Autotote impressed me more like a sister company than a subsidiary. Autotote and Automatic Totalisators had divided the planet into two regions as I recall, The Americas and Europe which Autotote serviced and the rest which Automatic Totalisators serviced. It is interesting how we shared technology. Autotote had developed a VAX based totalisator as did Automatic Totalisators. The Automatic Totalisators system was VOTS (Victorian On Course Totalisator System). Automatic Totalisators reviewed the Autotote and VOTS systems to determine which to base their future tote systems on. They chose the Autotote system and this became the basis for the Automatic Totalisators Ltd's Atlas system. I think the fact that it was written in Pascal was significant.
Following are extracts from the Quarterly magazine.
In 1973, Autotote installed its first sell/cash system in Hamburg, Germany, at the Bahrenfeld Trabrennbahn, Germany's major harness racing facility. The terminal that handled both types of wagering transactions was the J-20, forerunner to the new J-25 terminal. It read a bettor-marked IBM card, printed a bet verification and serial number on the card and cashed by reading a machine readable serial number. The terminal had no keyboard or display for corrections and required the bettors to use special pencils. Two red lights indicated a card incorrectly marked, while two white lights and the sound of the impact printer indicated a bet accepted by the system. Alongside the J-20s were J-18 sell-only keyboard terminals, designed to handle 24 starter multi-value, multi -pool betting. Neither terminal has seen service in the United Sates, and while they were ahead of their time, both have now given way to the new technology embodied in the J-25. The system and terminals, however, are very effectively handling the wagering at Bahrenfeld and are, in part, responsible for the growth of the sport in Hamburg.
In Northern Germany, there were sufficient numbers of people involved with equestrian sport to foster racing competition. While horses in hilly Rhineland districts and mountainous Bavaria were used almost exclusively as farm animals, it was in the plains of coastal Germany and Schleswig-Holstein that horses were bred for sport. It is here that the Trakehner, Holstein, Hanoverian, and Schleswig strains evolved, breeds that still dominate world class dressage and three-day event competitions. Still, trotting enjoyed little support from horse show circles. We had to attract people - especially young people - who would otherwise spend an afternoon off from work sailing, at a soccer match, or going for a picnic, says Berndt Jaenecke, a former journalist who now directs the promotional activities of the Bahrenfeld track. The way to achieve this was through intensified public relations activities, updating and standardizing the racing regulations, and the adoption of the most modern, effective, electronic totalisator techniques.
Jaenecke points out that this three-pronged approach has begun to pay off handsomely - the Bahrenfeld track has logged an average increase in attendance of 15% in the last four years, with bets climbing proportionately. Many of the people you see here today - maybe half of them - would have had no interest in trotting five years ago, observes Jaenecke, and the electronic totalisator has played an important role - not only in making the track operation more efficient, but throughout our promotional efforts.
The techniques noted by the promotions manager at Bahrenfeld would be cited by track managers throughout America as indispensable to a successful racing operation whether in New York City or Warsaw, Kentucky, and they have achieved dramatic results within a context that is vastly different from the structure of horse racing in this country. ...
|Happy with ATL at Happy Valley|
The Hong Kong PDP8 Totalisator System at Happy Valley
The above image is the system that Happy Valley is happy with!
Following is a small segment from a company booklet titled ATL International Name In Totalisator Betting Systems. At the time this article was written this system had 550 Ticket Issuing Machines.
Happy Valley at Hong Kong is Asia's busiest racecourse, just as Hong Kong is its most bustling city.
Happy Valley is controlled by a race club that is rather special. The profits from the racecourse are given to the various charities in this teeming city. Happy Valley as a result helps build schools, hospitals and other utilities which benefit the general public in Hong Kong.
A Totalisator System that would be efficient in handling the betting and return sound profits to the race club therefore had marked significance for ATL who won the contract.
ATL's installation of an Electronic Totalisator System for the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club was significant for another reason. The installation was designed to do the same job as its big brother in Aqueduct, only on a more compact scale, but with inbuilt capacity to handle the Club's future requirements for many years to come. Happy Valley has been so called for a long time. But especially so since ATL's Electronic Totalisator System was installed.
Unfortunately the word happy could not be associated with ATL's following much later system for the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club to be installed at their new racetrack at Sha Tin. This project designed a tote based on a ring network of PDP11/70 computers, the top of the range. This project failed due to inability to deliver on time.
I can attest to the Hong Kong Jockey Club's community projects. I lived in Hong Kong for five years as a schoolboy. I returned to Hong Kong for a holiday and a trip down memory lane in 1984. I recall being surprised to see a massive skyscraper being built with a large banner on the side with the words "Another Hong Kong Jockey Club Community Project"
|Electronic Totalisators III Tote Topics no. 20|
An ATL PDP8 Triplex Totalisator system
This is a Tote Topics article August 1968. It is interesting to read this very early view of digital computers and the comparison with electromechanical systems. I have often wondered why documentation of these early computer totes refer to printing the odds and pool figures at regular intervals however I never thought that this was a means of data recovery as indicted in this article. With the rapid progress of these systems to handling many venues and far more diverse pools with increased runner combinations, this option would have quickly been rendered impracticable. The above image is not exactly the same as the one in this article however it is one of the triplex PDP8 totes and looks so similar it could come from the same negative. The chair looks the same and is in the exact same position in both photographs. The differences are the colour and the advertisement on this photograph. The image in the magazine is monochrome and where this article refers to dark doors this should be translated to brown in the photo above. Another observation is although I had not heard the term The Check On The Check I worked for decades with this ethos which dictated The System Must Work. I did receive a quip from a non technical manager once that in his opinion, my philosophy required backups of the backups for the backup.
Electronic Totalisators are so different from other types that it is not possible to apply to them the usual reliability criteria. We must, therefore, be very clear what we require in this line because the way in which it is achieved is to utterly different.
Ideally no equipment of any description should ever go wrong or give any trouble. This can never be completely achieved in practice, but with some types of equipment which are well designed and manufactured this ideal can be very closely approached. ATL Toatalisator equipment is a case in point where the fault rate is extremely low. It is thus able to provide unfailing service to the punter and ensure that the owner and operator do not lose money.
To achieve these ends, two things must be done. Firstly, as mentioned above, the equipment must be designed and made as well as is humanly possible to reduce the fault rate to the absolute minimum. Secondly, precautions must be taken in the design so that the vital race information can never be lost, come what may. Let us look at these two points in turn and see how they are carried out both with electromechanical and electronic totalisators.
Excellence of mechanical design and manufacture of electromechanical equipment results in a low incidence of faults and also long life. To see that this is so it is only necessary to consider the ATL installations which are still giving excellent service after twenty, thirty and even more years of continuous work. There are many of them spread throughout the world. With electronic equipment, which is made by the large specialist manufacturers, it is, first of all, necessary to select the best available. If the overall reliability must be improved further, and this is frequently the case, then duplication and possibly triplication of the equipment is the answer. As well as providing extra equipment against the possibility of malfunction, the duplicate can provide another check against miscalculation or misreading of data.
By these means it is possible to produce an almost negligible fault rate. However, the financial consequences of any fault can be extremely serious and the second precaution mentioned above must be taken, to ensure that the pool information can never, never, never be lost. The way in which this has been done has given rise to the famous ATL phrase The Check on the Check. With electromechanical totalisators there are always several points from which the initial pool information may be independently obtained to check results, or in case of need. These points are all mechanical, such as counters, and virtually the only thing which could cause the loss of all information would be an atomic bomb!
With Electronic Totalisators the same type of counters are not used. The information is stored in the magnetic core memory of the computers and one cannot look at it and see what is there. However, an integral portion of any Electronic Totalisator is a high speed printer and in normal use the updated odds and pool figures are printed out at frequent intervals, normally between 30 and 90 seconds. Printed information, which can never be significantly in error, is thus always available.
Additional records may be made which are quite independent of the pools accumulated in the machine memory. The most usual type of these is a magnetic tape containing details of all bets. However, it takes some time to use such records which are mainly useful as a long term backup. It is also possible, as with other types of totalisator, to reconstruct the pools from the machine counters and the odds, but again this takes some time.
Hence it can be seen that the principle of The Check on the Check, i.e. the ability to obtain vital information from several independent sources, has been carried through, in its entirety, to the Electronic Totalisator. Due to the different type of equipment, the way in which it has been done is quite different but the result is just the same in completely protecting the punter and the operator against all possible types of equipment faults.
With an Electronic Totalisator all the equipment outside the machine room is familiar, and normal maintenance techniques apply. In the machine room, however, fresh techniques are required on equipment which is similar to many computer installations. Personnel to handle this equipment must still, of course, be thoroughly steeped in tote philosophy. So a new member has been added to the team. He is thoroughly versed in the micro and integrated circuits of modern electronics as well as knowing the effects of the remainder of the totalisator equipment on them.
Shown on the front page of this article is the control section of an ATL Electronic Totalisator using PDP-8 computers. The other items in the machine room, which are not shown in the photograph, are the two high speed printers, the Teletypes and the computer room indicator.
On the left of the picture are three Scanners followed by two Board Control Units with the two Totalisator Control Consoles on the desk in front of them. Of the remaining five cabinets, the three with dark doors house the computers and the other two the extended memories and the high speed readers and punches.
|Harold Park Paceway|
Following is an extract from a company booklet ATL International Name in Totalisator Betting Systems. The electronic totalisator system referred to here is the same as the one in the photograph in the Electronics Totalisators III article above. Harold Park has now closed and its operations moved to Menangle Park.
Harold Park Paceway has been host to many great trotters including Cardigan Bay, who won a million dollars in Australasia and the United States, and Lucky Creed who won 23 successive events. Their performances will be talked about at Harold Park for as long as people remember the time Dan Patch broke the two minute barrier for a mile at Yonkers. And that will be forever.
Harold Park Paceway was the first racecourse in the Southern Hemisphere to install an Electronic Totalisator System.
ATL did the job, its tenth successful Electronic installation since Aqueduct. This year there will be 89 race meetings at Harold Park, 47 of them for trotters and 42 for greyhounds. All will attract huge crowds, for this racecourse is the most important venue of its kind in Australia.
The N.S.W. Trotting Club, the company controlling Harold Park, at the moment can boast of having the most modern Totalisator facilities anywhere in the trotting world.
|William Johnson recalls these systems|
I have included an email from William Johnson written in 2003 for two reasons. First, the systems of this era were based on PDP-8 computers and William mentions them here. Second he mentions several installations of this era that have articles presented here. He mentions Harold Park, which appears under the previous heading and Wentworth Park which appears below. William also mentions Hong Kong and there is a segment on Happy Valley above, which is the system William would have worked on. Finally William mentions Indonesia which is probably the Djakarta system which appears under the next heading. William had a long career with ATL in engineering and managerial roles.
I worked on Melbourne doubles installation 1960's, Caracas installation for three years and left to work in Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Ipoh between 1961-1967.
Kuala Lumpur had the drum adders (also used as totals displays for the public) until a new mechanical totalisator arrived for installation. It was first installed under the grandstand but rainwater problems caused it to be moved to the ground floor above. This was done with local staff between meetings.
One year after my return I worked as an electrical inspector under Colin Holz. We did the inspection for the Hong Kong and Indonesian PDP-8 totalisators. Later, I had a one week crash course with Digital, (same class with Neville Mitchell) then went to work at Harold Park and Wentworth Park Installations and operations.
From memory my brother Jeff did some programming for the PDP-8 and went to Indonesia for the installation. Later on, he introduced the internet to the Australian public in Perth, his children's school.
|Djakarta uses versatile electronic totalisator systems with complete satisfaction|
Following is an extract from a company booklet ATL International Name in Totalisator Betting Systems. The electronic totalisator system referred to here is another PDP8 installation like the ones above and was probably written in 1972.
The racecourse and the greyhound racetrack in Djakarta are the newest in Asia.
Each was built around an ATL Electronic Totalisator System.
The racecourse of the Jakarta Turf Turf Club Pty. Ltd. came into operation last year.
The Djakarta Canidrome commenced greyhound racing in 1970. ATL's totalisator installations will be adequate for many years to come to handle a growing volume of racing business in the fast developing Indonesian capital.
|ATL is home at Wentworth Park|
The ATL indicator at Wentworth Park
The following paragraphs appeared in the booklet ATL international name in totalisator betting systems and was probably written in 1972.
At Wentworth Park in Sydney you rub shoulders with many of the top greyhounds in the Southern Hemisphere. Greyhounds in the same mould as Zoom Top, Roman Earl and Black Top who re-wrote its track records with incredible performances.
This year 1,600 greyhounds will jump from the starting boxes at Wentworth Park. They will all be trying to break records, but few will succeed. Records are anything but fragile at Wentworth Park, being made as they were by real champions.
Half a million people will go to Wentworth Park this season, backing their judgement with a total turnover of about $8 million.
ATL installed its latest equipment at Wentworth Park in 1971. The two-computer system, with two scanners, 90 ticket issuing machines and indicator board, form part of the Electronic Totalisator System which processes the on course and off course investments on each race quicker than the judge can post the winner's number.
ATL fields only one candidate against its speed. Reliability. They dead-heat in the systems race it services.
In its first 9 months of operation the Electronic Totalisator System at Sydney's Wentworth Park has fulfilled every expectation. Attendance figures have risen and betting turnover records have been made and broken with the rise in on-course and off-course investment.
Automatic Totalisators Limited installed the Electronic Totalisator System for Win, Place and Quinella betting at Wentworth Park last June on behalf of the N.S.W. National Coursing Association Limited.
Greyhound meetings at Wentworth Park are now directly televised on Saturday evening in prime time by one of Sydney's major television channels.
These telecasts, the streamlined betting system and the excellent amenities provided by the N.C.A. for greyhound racing at Wentworth Park have combined to give the sport a greatly improved public image.
The N.S.W. National Coursing Association Limited is one of Australia's oldest sporting bodies.
The Association, formed in 1895, has conducted greyhound racing continuously during the past 76 years and is now recognised as one of the most progressive greyhound racing control bodies in the world.
Newly-constructed Leger and Paddock Totalisator Houses accommodate ATL's Electronic Totalisator System. The Odds, Results and Dividend Indicator Board is also electronically controlled.
Wentworth Park is therefore the only racing association in Australia which can boast of having its Totalisator System and Indicator under electronic control.
The Wentworth Park Trust controls general public and sporting facilities at Wentworth Park which also contains one of the State's top Soccer fields and is the venue for first grade matches in this popular football code. Other sporting fixtures, notably the annual 'Highland Gathering' of Sydney's Scottish community also take place at Wentworth Park.
Twin computers combine on-course and off-course investments at Wentworth Park. Closed circuit television is used to transmit Odds, Results and Dividends information throughout the Course for both public and internal use.
As an added feature, the running of each race is videotaped and played back to the patrons on monitors 2 minutes after the greyhounds have crossed the finish line.
The Computer Room incorporates the TAB off-course and ATL control offices in a fully air-conditioned area which is located in the Paddock Totalisator House and overlooks the track.
The Electronic Totalisator System is capable of serving 128 Ticket Issuing Machines selling Win, Place and Quinella tickets in the range of 50 cents to $50.
High speed Line Printers record the information stored in the computers. This information is available for checking and for record purposes at any time.
Logging Teleprinters record all instructions given to the computers and type out data as specified by the program. Instructions not taken care of by the program are keyed into the Totalisator Control Console which serves as an input device.
Calculations of Odds and Dividends are made by the computer under program control. The Lamp Boxes in the Indicator Board are activated by the Board Control Unit which is part of the computer complex.
Five selling divisions equipped with type J11 single value Win, Place and Quinella Ticket Issuing Machines serve the betting needs of the public. Both types of machine are fast lightweight press button units designed to efficiently and speedily handle business at the selling windows.
A new grandstand with many special design features is envisaged in future plans for Wentworth Park. ATL shares with the Wentworth Park Trust and the National Coursing Association their enthusiastic anticipation of this plan becoming a reality, thus providing another facet to the modern facilities offered at this internationally-known greyhound race track.
|Jai Alai - Tote Topics No.39 July 1970|
I have included this article for several reasons. First it gives an introduction to a fast and interesting game that many may not be aware of. Second it provides a history of this game that has ancient origins. Third, as the first sentence indicates, it is, at the time, the only sport on which totalisator betting is legal and is probably the seed that led to the extensive sports betting industry present in the early new millennium. Fourth it demonstrates the application of a tote to something other than the well known three, Gallops, Trots and Dogs. Fifth, it introduces the Big Q and the requirements for building a Fronton which are quite interesting. Finally and far from least it refers to Automatic Totalisators (U.S.A.) which became known as ATUSA which was Automatic Totalisator Pty. Ltd.'s American subsidiary. It later changed its name to Autotote which was a name it became popularly known as in America. The subsidiary was later sold and it became a sister company, sharing technology and products and regions of the planet were agreed upon for each to service.
Jai Alai (pronounced Hi Li) is reputed to be the fastest ball game in the world and the only sport in which totalisator wagering on the skill of human beings is legal.
The Origins of Jai Alai are said to date back to the Babylonians and Mayan Indians but the game as it is known today began some five hundred years ago in the Basque Provinces in Spain - the Pyranees mountains and surrounding foothills, traditional dividing line between France and Spain. The Basque peasants found recreation on Sunday by hurling a ball against the wall of the village church and the game developed until matches were arranged between the best players of each town. The spectators cheered and drank the local wine at the contests and Sunday became fiesta time, in Basque tongue it was called jai-alai which means, 'happy holiday'. The game passed the church wall stage at the beginning of the last century and the first Fronton - building where Jai Alai is played - was built at Eibar, Spain in 1806. However, over the years as with all sports, radical changes have been made in the type of equipment and the structure of the Fronton which has resulted in a faster and more skilful game.
The playing court of the game 'Cancha' is 176 feet long by 40 feet wide and the front wall is 44 feet high, constructed out of 12" thick granite blocks each weighing about 10 tons. the side and back walls are made of concrete covered with gunite to withstand the continuous striking of the rock hard ball which travels at speeds of up to 150 m.p.h. The patrons are protected from the ball by wire mesh and every part of the game is visible from all seats in the Fronton.
The game is easy to understand because it is regulated by the shortest set of rules governing a game involving the throwing of a ball. The ball or Pelota is hurled against the front wall of the playing court by players who wear wicker baskets 'Cestas' which are made to their specifications. The size of the cesta may vary depending on whether the player is playing back court or front court. Singles and Doubles game, as in tennis, are played and the players - pairs for doubles - in each game play in rotation to a predetermined number of points. A point is won when the opposition cannot return the ball to the front wall. Basically the rules are: The Pelotas' service bounce must be between two designated lines on the court floor for it to be good. The pelota must be caught by the opposing player after not more than one bounce on the floor. The pelota need not bounce at all and it can bounce off the walls as many times as a player can negotiate. The catching and throwing of the pelota must be one completely integrated and continuous motion. This is an oversimplified explanation of a game that incorporates the finesse of a tennis placement, is faster than handball, requires the exact timing of golf and must be seen to realise the thrills it can elicit. The controlled speed of Jai Alai is really beautiful to watch.
Jai Alai is played in Spain, Italy, France, Belgium, Mexico, Cuba, The Philippines, South America, U.S.A., and later this year it will be played in Indonesia. While some type of wagering would take place in most countries, betting would not be on the same scale as it is in Florida, U.S.A., where it is conducted the same as on Horse or Greyhound racing. In Florida - only state to legalise betting on Jai Alai - there are six Frontons and because of the rewards and conditions most players whether from the Basque country, Mexico or anywhere else want to play there.
The totalisator betting facilities at four of the Frontons in Florida - Dania, Miami, Orlando, and Daytona Beach - are provided by our subsidiary, Automatic Totalisators (U.S.A.) Ltd. WIN, PLACE, SHOW, QUINELLA and PERFECTA or CORRECTA betting pools are operated on almost every game and in addition a DAILY DOUBLE and BIG Q are operated at each matinee and evening performance. We have covered all these pools with the exception of the Big Q in previous issues of Tote Topics. The Big Q is picking two consecutive winning quinellas. It is an entirely individual form of wagering. The bettor selects a quinella choice in one game and if a winner, must exchange the ticket at no additional cost for a quinella combination in the second game. Indication is provided to allow the public to follow the trend of betting throughout the entire betting period. The maximum number of post positions - starters as in racing - is eight and for ease of identification each number has a colour and players wear a coloured shirt to match the appropriate post position. The points score, results and dividends for all pools are also displayed on the same indicator which is positioned above the court and is clearly visible from all seats in the Fronton.
Although Jai Alai is related to racing by way of its totalisator betting nature, the sport is different in many ways. It has been said a different type of people watch Jai Alai and generally the fan is not a gambler; he or she is looking for an evening of entertainment and the per capita figures bear this out. Big money is not bet at jai Alai because there is a handicapping problem and this is the reason for the tote turnover being almost entirely Quinella, Perfecta and other combination pools.
The player' manager and match maker, who holds a position similar to that of a racing secretary in horse racing has the difficult task of assigning the players to post positions and games for the evenings programme. The leading players are assigned the higher number, the more difficult post positions, thus the players in the lower number positions have an advantage as they have the earliest opportunity to serve or receive and can attempt to amass points. Handicapping is difficult due to the type of information available. Information such as blood line for horses and greyhounds is pertinent in racing but of course has no relevance in professional athletic competition. Therefore the only information used by the handicapper in Jai Alai is the player's past record which is not conclusive by any means.
A strict control is maintained over all players to ensure that they must play to win at all times and Frontons maintain a world-wide investigation service and each candidate is thoroughly screened and investigated, not only as to his ability but as to character and reputation before a contract is offered.
The success of any totalisator betting sport, including horse and greyhound racing and Jai Alai depends on public conviction that the game is fair. The thrilling Basque game has proved this by its incredible acceptance in Florida, U.S.A. and other countries.
Jai Alai at Dania Fronton
|Some Listed Installations|
As this chapter has turned out to be a travelogue of ATL's global exploits it left me thinking that I would like to find articles relating to some other interesting countries where ATL had customers. Apart from the locations covered on this page, there are other pages in this website dedicated to the United States, Caracas representing South America and Harringay representing England so I was satisfied with them. I have been unable to find anything on some countries I find interesting like Ireland and India. Failing finding any specific articles I have presented a list of customers in these countries that are not mentioned elsewhere on this site. I have also included some of the small list entries of interest. It illustrates the diverse regions of our planet from whence ATL's customers came. It is also interesting to note that of all countries in this document, New Zealand has the greatest number of installations with 134 list entries. I do not know what year this document was produced however I will hazard a guess at late 1970s.
Customer names prefixed with a * are computer tote installations, all others are Julius Tote electromechanical systems.
|Bellybunion Greyhound Racing Club Ltd - Kerry||  The Boyne Valley Greyhound Racing Co. - Meath||  Clonmel Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Tipperary|
|Cork Greyhound Race Co. Ltd. - Cork||  The Dublin Greyhound & Sports Association Ltd. - Dublin||  Dundealgan Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Louth|
|Enniscorthy Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Wexford||  Kilkenny Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Kilkenny||  The Kingdom Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Kerry|
|Lifford Greyhound Racing Co. - Donegal||  Limerick Greyhound Racing Track Ltd. - Limerick||  Mullinger Greyhound Racing Co. Ltd. - Westmeath|
|Shelbourne Greyhound Stadium Limited - Dublin||  Thurles Greyhound Racing & Sport Association Ltd. - Tipperary||  Waterford Greyhound Racing Track Ltd. - Waterford|
|Youghal Greyhound Race Co. Limited - Cork||  Longford Sports Limited - Longford|
|*Penang Turf Club - Penang||  *Perak Turf Club - Ipoh||  *Selangor Turf Club - Kuala Lumpur|
|Sarawak Turf Club - Kuching||  *Royal Sabah Turf Club - Kota Kinabalu|
|History of Horse Racing In Australia|
Following is an article in Tote Topics number 24 published December 1968. It is not about the totalisator, however I have included it here for what is probably the reason it was included in Tote Topics in the first place, and that is it relates the history of the industry on which the racecourse totalisator depends. The article begins with Season's Greetings and it is curious to note that the number of the magazine when combined with the month it was published, identifies Christmas Eve.
It is known that horse racing took place in England about AD.210, when Arabian horses brought over by Emperor Septimus Leverus Alexander were matched against the others at Netherby in Yorkshire. And of course horse-racing was even older than that meeting - before the coming of the Romans to Britain. As early as men tamed and bestrode horses, they raced them.
Remembering this, many would say that Australia has a short racing record. But, viewed in the modern sense, the first race for the English Derby took place at Epsom in May, 1780, which was only eight years before the establishment of Sydney and thirty years before the first Hyde Park meeting in Sydney. The English St. Leger is the oldest classic race; it was first run in 1776.
No one knows when the first horse race took place in Australia because this record has been lost, but we can be certain that mounted contests took place before the meetings of 1810, which are the earliest on record. Undeniably, quite a number of private matches were staged, both with saddle and gig horses, before an actual race meeting took place. Most of the early matches were run on the Parramatta and Windsor roads.
By 1805 the first stock of several improved sires was under saddle, and in that year we read that a goanna (large lizard) outran a race horse in the Hawkesbury district. There was a recognised raceground located in the Windsor-Richmond area. Details handed down disclose that this was probably located on Ham Common and in close proximity to the present day Hawkesbury race-course. Neighbours from the river settlements were the first racegoers but unfortunately no records exist now of these early Richmond races.
The Hyde Park three-day meeting held in October, 1810, is regarded as Australia's first official race meeting and during the following fifty years horse-racing underwent many changes. Turf Clubs were formed and disbanded and many courses were cleared, improved and later abandoned. However, by June, 1860, when regular racing at Randwick commenced, the sport had outgrown these early dangers so inseparable from the growth of a young nation, and was firmly established in all States.
The first racing club was established in Australia in 1825 and was known as the Sydney Turf Club, not to be confused with the present Sydney Turf Club formed in 1943. The Sydney Turf Club preceded its contemporary in Van Diemen's Land, the Tasmanian Turf Club, by a year, although racing of a sort had taken place in Tasmania since 1814. The first Tasmanian Turf Club was formed in April 1826, and thereafter, as new Settlements were established, so racing clubs sprang up. The first meetings near Perth took place in late 1833. The first Adelaide meeting was held on January, 1838, while Melbourne meetings commenced the same year. The first Queensland meeting took place in 1843 within twelve months of that State being opened for general settlement.
To-day there are about eight hundred jockey, racing and hunt clubs in Australia, all of which hold regular meetings. Some clubs may hold a meeting but once a year, while others have full year-round programmes, as in the capital cities and in certain important country racing centres. From the humble beginning in 1810, when the sport was almost entirely amateur, horse racing has grown to such an extent that to-day twenty-five thousand people throughout Australia are professionally connected with the Turf.
One important factor that influenced early horse racing in Australia was the type of horses available for racing. The first import of horses was a consignment of one stallion, three mares and three yearlings which came with the First Fleet in January 1788. The biggest improvement in horse stock prior to 1825 was effected by an influx of Arabs brought from Persia via India. Since 1825, when racing was well established, stock has been imported mainly from England. Although to-day Australian breeders favour imported blood to afford them greater chances of stud success, breeding records have shown that local-bred stallions are also capable of greatness. To-day the practical use of Arabs is restricted to the breeding of stock horses, show hacks and saddle horses.
Many fine mares have been brought to Australia since 1825 and to-day there are some 11,000 pure bred mares returned annually to the Australian Stud Book. Their pedigrees are impeccable for a century or more.
There will always be newcomers bringing change of blood and new successes in their own lines, and each stallion leaves his mark on the Australian thoroughbred.
In Australia now some 5,000 pure-bred racehorses are born each Spring, some 16,000 are in work each year, and the sport that was born in Sydney's Hyde Park with a mere handful of half-bred ponies is to-day a business employing many thousands of people associated with the rearing and racing of thoroughbreds. Australia has more pure bred horses and holds at least twice the number of race meetings throughout the year compared with England - the birthplace of the racing thoroughbred. The first (and only) Epsom Derby contestant, Chester's son Kirham, has been followed overseas by a very large company of good performers on the world's racetracks.
The thoroughbred has become internationalised, and the Australian racehorse of to-day is as fine and pure as any in the world.
(reprinted from Turf Cavalcade by courtesy of the Australian Jockey Club)
That is the end of this article in Tote Topics magazine. As it was published 45 years ago it is now presented courtesy of the Australian Turf Club and the Author, Mr Douglas Barrie
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