This technology history page contains a photograph, which is one of several belonging to the photo gallery pages, which are part of several pages relating to the invention of the world's first automatic totalizator in 1913 and Automatic Totalisators Limited, the company founded by George Julius in 1917 to develop, manufacture and export these systems.

A Win Place and Forecast J8 TIM

This image shows the business end of a totalisator system. It is outside the windows where these machines were in operation that the punters queued up to lay their bets on the totalisator.

This is an image of a J8 TIM (Ticket Issuing Machine). This is a later model to the ones I am familiar with as it supports the Forecast pool as well as the Win and Place pools. The J8 is a significant machine as it probably had one of the longest lifespans of any of the TIMs manufactured by Automatic Totalisators. I remember them well as my PDP 11 tote systems with their J22 TIMs, replaced the Julius totes on the Brisbane tracks, which were predominantly using the J8 TIMs. Win-Place only versions of this machine were strewn all around the tracks that I worked on. In many locations around the tracks they remained, in no longer required locations, for at least a decade after their last operation, some lingered a lot longer.

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J8 and Autotote Memories from Joe Brandon

Following is a comment made in 1999, from Joe Brandon, who worked for Autotote, which was Automatic Totalisators Limited's American subsidiary, in which he mentions the J8. I started with Autotote in 1974 at Dania Jai Alai. Ted Taylor (from London) was my boss. I cut my teeth on the J8. I'm now the manager at Atlantic City. Additionally Joe made the following observation in January 2015 relating to some tools, which he used to perform maintenance operations on the J8s: While looking at the J8 in the photo Gallery, it occurred to me I still have my latch up wrenches as well as my original ball peen hammer and punch (for replacing platen pins). The wrenches had to be thin to adjust under the halo. The Halo that Joe refers to is an arc of electrical contacts that sits under the graduated arc on top of the machine. The Horse Halo can be seen in the image below titled The bottom of a J7 TIM (Issuer) Showing the Horse Halo. It can also be seen in the circuit diagram in the first image below near the bottom to the right of centre where it is blatantly obvious and is labelled Horse Selector Quadrant.

Additionally, in 2015, Joe related how the J8 featured in his meeting Sue, his wife to be. He wrote The story is kind of legend here especially with old Autotote folks and I agree, it is the stuff of legends. Joe's anecdote:
One story I never told you and it has to do with the J8 and how I met my wife. We were installing Miami Jai Alai in 1974. At that time, we had designed what we called a black box which allowed us to interface the J8 in combination with the J11's to our PDP8 computer system and this was the first time we used the configuration. I rewired the plant with Don Raison's son Geoff. After setting up the line right outside the computer room, I was told opening night I would in fact be running the lines in what was called the TV room which was to the right and behind the court.
Now of course, you know what a J8 looks like and on our stands it sat about 3 1/2 feet high or so. When I walked into the room that night there was a young lady selling at the first machine. Let's say she was well endowed to say the least and those puppies were just resting happily and covering half of the top of the J8. Suffice to say I didn't wander far that night and Sue and I are now married, almost 40 years now. True story! If it wasn't for Autotote, I wouldn't have her, that's for sure.

Joe adds the following regarding his wife Sue, She is part of the history in more ways than one because she ended up being one of the greats, as to TIM technicians we had at the other company. Worked for them for over twenty years with me and actually worked her way up to running the Tote at Freehold when I took over the Atlantic City hub. She is actually in charge of our Maintenance Department here in Las Vegas now.

Joe also mentions a type of J8 that must have looked impressive. I'm trying to locate an old picture of me with a J8 back in "74". I hope I can find it because that particular machine was part of a shipment we received, I believe from South Africa at Ft. Pierce Jai Alai the year it opened. The really interesting part is the frames on those machines were brass instead of cast iron.

Joe also provides an interesting insight into dealing with problems on an electromechanical Julius Tote: One good memory of the electro mechanical system. At Ft. Pierce, the WPS, Quin and Exacta were belt driven with the brushes rotating on the commutator as the wagers came in. If the belt broke, especially at Jai Alai, you didn't stop to change the belt. You used your finger to rotate the brush until wagering stopped then you had about 20 minutes to change the belt. Note: WPS is Win Place and Show pools.

I mentioned Graeme Twycross' observation in the Melbourne Cup chapter of this website, about ATL's obtuse concept of portable, to Joe. Graeme stated that ATL would attach handles to anything regardless of weight, to classify it as portable. I also informed Joe that if I had to move a J22, during the period that I worked with them, mainly during the 1980s, I would get someone else to take the second handle. If I did move one on my own it was only a short distance. Joe replied with the following paragraphs:

Man, those J8s were heavy! 85lbs. if I remember right. But there was a heavier one than that. I believe we put the first computer system into Roosevelt Raceway ("59" I think?). It was DEC's first computer as used by us. Webmaster's Note: ("59" I think?) probably should be 1969 as the first DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) based tote we developed was in 1968. After that meet, there was litigation of some sort (between DEC and ATL), of which I never knew the details per say. Anyway, I was sent to the Wilmington office in I believe "76" or so, give or take a year and while there, was assigned to help pull out of storage something called the J10. It was like a J8, frame wise, but bigger and had push buttons on the right and telephone relays mounted inside (I think I'm right on this. Memory gets fuzzy sometimes). They had just been released in conjunction with the litigation I mentioned above, I believe because it was proven they were definitely developed by Automatic Totalisators.
We actually converted them to be used on the PDP8 system with the same relays as we used in the J11. Anyway, those things were even heavier than a J8, if one can believe that! Somewhere around 97lbs. or so.

I was actually working in the shop when they pulled out the J10's. Heavy as hell as he stated. One funny thing occurred when one of the techs. I believe it was Sam Abelman opened the first one and a mouse jumped out. Scared the hell out of him. I remember they had a cage or box inside with old telephone relays like what we used in our old lampboxes. If memory serves, we replaced that with a relay rack something like the J11s. I believe these went to a track somewhere in the Caribbean Islands.

When I started in Feb of 74, Ted was the manager at Dania Jai Alai. He also managed Rocky Mountain Dog Track, Sodrac Park and Jefferson dog tracks. At the time Jean Melanson was the manager at Miami Jai Alai and Don Raison was the head of Field ops. We also had a French Canadian named Mel Parsons who ran tracks up in Northern Canada and Burl Knopp who managed the old Key West J8 installation. Ted was already an old timer when I came along.

Finally, a contemporary note from Joe relating what he is up to in 2015:
I'm still in the business. I left Autotote/Sci-Games ten years ago and I'm now running the tote for Las Vegas Dissemination. It's basically the same system I've been working on forever. The company started out as Autotote CBS and then went private. The owner is the son of the owner of a major casino here who actually at one time owned all the Coast properties. Even cooler, I was able to slip right in as we bought the license to 3 systems from Autotote so I'm really at home with it. We also have 4 programmers here who were with the other company to boot.

Fancy Line

It is interesting to note that The Royal Turf Club of Thailand continued to use the electromechanical Julius J8s as the on-course ticket issuing machine up until October 1995, 3 decades after the advent of the electronic computer totes. Manufacturing of the J8 started in 1945 at ATL's Chalmers Street Factory and continued at the Meadowbank factory when it opened in 1947. This means the The Royal Turf Club of Thailand was still using this type of TIM half a century after they first went into production. They were a very good design!

I only worked on the electronic generations of totalisators so I have no experience with the electromechanical ones. Despite this, from my experience the J8 is probably the most iconic and famous of all the TIMs. I have had large numbers of tote operations staff work for me and met many others from different states. It is amazing how, when talking to sellers with long service, their face lights up, and they become animated, when recalling their early years working with the J8.

The TIM has an arc on the top, graduated with runner numbers. To select a runner number the handle is rotated to the desired runner number or combination for the Forecast pool and the knob on the handle is moved outwards to select the win pool or inwards to select the Place or Forecast pools. In this inward position another knob on the top of the machine to the left of the arc, labelled P and F selects the Place or Forecast pools. When the selection is complete the knob on the handle is pushed down initiating a transaction cycle and the handle is locked for the duration of the cycle. On completion of the transaction cycle the handle is unlocked so the next customer can be served. At the top right of the machine, there is an on off switch and to the left of that a handle release button. The handle release button is used if, due to some fault condition, the transaction cycle does not complete properly leaving the handle permanently locked. The Handle Release, Double Pole Switch is mentioned in the table below titled Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted. Three sample tickets are visible on top of the machine, above the ticket chute from whence they were issued. All three tickets are Race 6 costing 5 Shillings with the left one being on the Win pool on runner 13, the middle on the Forecast pool on combination 3 and 4, and the right hand ticket the Place pool on runner 4. Down the bottom right corner of the machine are three ticket counters for Win, Forecast and Total.

J8 Memories from Chris Robertson

Following are some observations regarding the J8 TIM from Chris Robertson, the most informed punter on the subject of totalisator systems I know. He refers to me not having seen a J8 in operation, despite my having worked on the system that replaced them:

You really missed something there! A house full of J8 machines flat out was something to behold - and to hear. The depressing and release of the issue button had a sound of its own (clackety-clack), and when a whole bank was in action there was plenty of sound. Swinging the machine's dial looked a lot more fun than pushing buttons on the J10.

An interesting place to watch the J8 in action was at Ireland's greyhound tracks. The machines were configured to sell win, place and forecast (exacta) at all windows. This could be done because, as in the U.K., Irish greyhound field sizes were limited to six runners. The first six positions on the dial's arc were occupied by the numbers 1 through 6, and the next fifteen by the various possible combinations, starting with 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 2-3, 2-4 and so on. If the customer wanted a forecast with the higher number winning, the button was depressed in the 'place' mode. A boxed combination was sold as an 'each way' bet. I saw the J8 at Cork, Waterford and Dublin's Shelbourne Park; while earlier Julius machines were in action at Dublin's Harold's Cross (as at London's White City). This was way back in 1979.

My J8 Ticket Issuing Machine pamphlet gives the following information regarding pools.

POOLS
The different combinations of pools that can be operated from a J8 Ticket Issuing Machine are:--

When the machine is required to sell other than on 24 starters Win and Place, the selector quadrant on the cover of the machine is changed as well as the printing type wheel in the machine.

Fancy Line

This section contains extracts from a company document titled Automatic Totalisators Limited Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams dated 15/5/1935. This document was kindly provided by emeritus Prof. Bob Doran who photographed the document when he was researching the Julius Totalisator, which was still present at Riccarton Racecourse in Christchurch New Zealand. Note that this old document calls the scanners distributors and the TIMs are called Issuers. The complete transcript of this document, from the images of it that Bob sent, can be read in another page in the Photo Gallery of this website. To read this, click on the image at the top of this page, scroll up in the Photo Gallery index to the heading Early Factory Images and then select the blue image thumbnail above with the first sentence of the associated text being This is a technical drawing showing Julius Tote interconnections. Additionally the drawings and lists presented below are extracted from a 55 page Automatic Totalisators Limited document detailing the assembly, wiring and test procedure for J8 Tims for Randall Park in Ohio, which mentions the year 1950. Essentially machines for America differed from those used in Australia in that they supported an additional pool called Show. Also as the Randall Park system installation was in 1950, by then the TIMs had a high or low value selectable on them.

Another significant difference between these J8s is in the runner selection. In the image at the top of this page, the runner selection arc that the runner selection handle sweeps around, is graduated up to runner 30 for the Win and Place Pools. Alternatively it can be used for the Forecast Pool with races having up to 6 runners. This was not the case with the TIMs for Randall Park where the arc was divided up into two halves. As can be seen from the Issuer Specifications presented below, the maximum number of starters supported is 12. This makes it possible to divide the runner selection arc in two. The top part of the arc is used as normal for selecting runners 1 to 12 for the Win and Place pools. This frees up the lower part of the arc for selecting runners 1 to 12 for the additional Show Pool. The Show Pool runners can be seen in the lower half of the arc in the drawing below labelled J8 OPER NO. 34 Randall Park. The word SHOW appears above this group of runners with an arrow pointing down towards the runners. Also the words WIN PLACE are above the word SHOW with an arrow pointing up towards the Win/Place runner selections up to 12.

The drawing shown in the image below titled J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park has 7 in the bottom right corner of the drawing titled OPER NO. which is embedded in the name I have attributed to the image. It also has G.A.J. on the PART NO. line. G.A.J are George Alfred Julius' initials. Additionally in this identification rectangle titled AUTOMATIC TOTALISATORS OPERATION SCHEDULE at the bottom right hand side of the drawing, the draughtsman's name Noble can be seen to the right of the word DRAWN. This is Norm Noble, a long serving Automatic Totalisators employee. I remember him very well. He was a very charismatic character and although it was not his responsibility to do so I could always rely on him as a last resort to go to work in Sydney on weekends, public holidays, or otherwise out of hours to send me anything I needed in Brisbane. There is a photo of the ATL drawing office in the "Memories of the Factory" chapter that pre-dates my time which has Norm Noble in it, unfortunately he is facing away from the camera. You may have noticed, however Norm has also checked his own drawing as in the CHECK box below the DRAWN box, are the initials N.N. which belong to Norm Noble!

As these drawings relate to the Randall Park J8 TIMs, I have included the following extract from Rod Richards recollections of working at the Meadowbank Factory. Rod worked for Automatic Totalisators Limited as an apprentice and later an engineer in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Following is the extract:

On my first day at ATL I was introduced to man in charge of the Adders, Fred James an old Tote man whose first words were 'Rod, I do not care how long it takes, but it must be done right' I still remember those words as I still tend not to take short cuts. Although 'take your time' was not quite right as Totes was at the time super busy with a number of jobs in the pipe line and overtime being worked. I recall that towards the end of the year 1949, the Randall Park job in the USA was top priority as it had to be completed before a certain date to meet the racing carnival or severe penalties would apply, I think we even worked Boxing Day and air freight was involved.

The tables and all the drawings below come from a fifty five page Automatic Totalisators Limited document with the following information on the first page.

GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OFTICKET ISSUEING
MACHINE

FOR RANDALL PARK.
THIS COPY HAS BEEN ISSUED
TO S.HUSS. ASSLY SECTION.

    DATE : 12.9.50.

Note the archaic spelling of issuing above. Additionally, I find it interesting that Automatic Totalisators Limited issued documents to particular staff members. In the above case S. Huss from the Assembly Section. These were usually well presented booklets having a substantial cover, with the employee's name on it. I had an old company manual in one of my desk drawers at work in my office in the Old Main Tote House at Eagle Farm Racecourse for many years, which contained the tote maintenance area, the computer room and offices. The manual provided technical details related to a piece of equipment belonging to the Julius Tote era and was of no further value. The manual related to a product called Visitel, which was an electromechanical device that transferred writing on a transmitter unit which was printed on a receiver unit, both units being connected by electric cables. I kept the manual as I was impressed by the workmanship involved in producing it and that it demonstrated the principle of issuing manuals to specific employees, which I have never seen anywhere else. This manual was dedicated to Frank Ryan, who was the predecessor of the last Chief Engineer of the Brisbane Julius Totes, who I knew well, Charles Barton.

Finally, I find it quite amazing how so much was hand drawn prior to the advent of the CAD/CAM systems and finally the Personal Computer that put an end to the busy Drawing Offices producing all these drawings. I remember the impressive drawing offices at AWA (Amalgamated Wireless Australasia) where I worked in the North Ryde Factory and ATL (Automatic Totalisators Limited) in the Meadowbank Factory where I later worked. Neville Mitchell, a long serving ATL Manager and Engineer wrote the following which is set in the 1960s, in his memories of the Meadowbank Factory, which are contained in two chapters of this website: I think. They put it together and they made the first basic computer tote system where they could go around to the people like the Hong Kong Jockey Club and say we are looking at computerised multi pool type systems and at that stage I was elevated to Drawing Office Manager. I was controlling 27 draughtsmen and trying to update the systems that were there so that we could cover larger projects.

On the second page of the General Assembly document, there is a drawing of the final product with the following specifications in the bottom right corner:

Issuer Specifications

Randall Park Installation
J8. Issuer
Two Stake $5 & $2
Three Pool Win. Place Show
Number of Starters-12
30 Horse Quadrant
Maximum No. of Races-10
Variable Code Wheels
Fixed Date
Wiring Diagram W275 & W276
Two Total "Electric" Veeders
Ribbon Colour - Blue
Test Coil Resistance - 58 Ohms
Trip Coil Setting - 1.2 Amp
Condenser 2N.20P.
Horse No. Type Leoo

This document has many pictures drawn of the J8 TIM in progressive stages of assembly starting with just the baseplate with four legs attached to it, to make access to the baseplate easy, raising it off the bench. This baseplate sitting on its legs, with a considerable level of assembly already performed can be seen in the drawing below titled J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park.

General Assembly of Randall Park issuer

Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted

1 Type Wheel Peg & Frame23 Other Side of Issuer Wiring Former
2 Type Wheel & Win, Place, Show Arm Assembly24 Selector Quadrant & Wiring
3 Locking Rod Assembly & Ribbon Bracket25 Win, Place, Show Arm, Anchor & Spring. Show Switch Bumper Assembly. Pool Selection & Bracket.
4 Intermediate Gear Bracket & Gear26 Condenser & Clips
5 Handle Assembly. Handle Stop & Brush Holder27 Motor & Brushes, Chain & Split Link.
6 Taper Pinning Operation28 Ribbon Feeding Operation
7 Platen Assembly29 Issuer Box & Hinge &Wiring Clips
8 Win Place, Switch Assembly & Slide Rod30 Plastic Issuer Handle , Pin & Circlip
9 Paper Feeding Assembly31 Electrical Setting Details
10 Trip Coil Assembly32 First Test
11 Ribbon Rewind33 Taper Pinning Operation
12 Quadrant Supports, Issuer lifting Handle & Posts & Cover posts33A Ticket Issuer Chute
13 Handle Release, Double Pole Switch & posts, Test Switch, Handle Release Lever & Spring34 Covers & Horse Number Segments.
14 Test Coils, Wiring Brackets & Cover Catches35 Final Test
15 Latch switch & Show switch36 Spray Finish issuer Box.
16 Cam operated Counter switch37 Attach Nameplate
17 Guillotine Lever, Anchor & Spring Printing Lever, Anchor & Spring38 Clean & Inspect Box
18 Value Slide Lever & Spring
19 Rotary Switch, Retaining Posts & Value Leaf Switch Assembly
20 Value Release & Spring
21 Veeder Assembly
22 Issuer Wiring Former & Brushes

For every entry in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above, there is a corresponding detail page in the General Assembly of Randall Park issuer document. For instance, the image below titled J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park has the number 7 in the bottom right corner of the drawing, which identifies it as Operation Number 7 with the words OPER above NO. inside the box and printed to the left of the written 7. This indicates that this drawing provides information about Oper No. 7 or Operation Number 7 in the list titled Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted above. In the Oper No. 7 drawing below the text near the top of the page on the left hand side is a two line instruction with SCREW PRINTING PLATTEN ASSEMBLY on top of TO FRAME AS SHOWN below. In the list above item 7 reads Platen Assembly, which is the assembly being screwed to the baseplate. Below the text SCREW PRINTING PLATTEN ASSEMBLY TO FRAME AS SHOWN in the drawing below, a drawing number is specified, SAJ203, with a line below it pointing to the assembly being screwed to the baseplate. This sub assembly drawing SAJ203 identifies the component parts of the sub assembly. The J in the drawing number specifies it as a Julius Tote drawing number.

The image below has a title in the top right hand corner that reads: Internal Wiring for Two Stake Three Pool Issuer (W275). Actually, the title in the drawing has no L on the end of the word Pool, however I have corrected that in the title I have presented because I am sure it is not a Three Poo Issuer! Please excuse the jocularity, sometimes needed to lighten up the laborious task of wading through circuit diagrams and descriptions! This issuer is a Two Stake issuer as it has a value switch that can select one of two values for the transaction. The Rotary Value Switch can be seen in two parts on the left hand side of the drawing below. Up against the left hand edge of the drawing below there are two instances of the label consisting of the words Rotary on top of Value on top of Switch. The top instance of Rotary Value Switch is on the left hand side of the two arms of the switch, the top one labelled W for the Win Pool and the bottom one labelled P for the Place Pool. This part of the switch selects the appropriate connection pins in the 16 Point Plug shown top centre of the drawing below. The bottom instance of Rotary Value Switch is on the left hand side of another two arms of the switch, again the top arm for the Win Pool and the bottom for the Place Pool. This lower part of the switch selects the appropriate pair of contact arms in the semicircular device near the bottom, to the right of centre of the image below labelled Horse Selector Quadrant.

The circuit diagram shown in the image below has little circles I call pads, drawn in the conductor lines to represent joins. These pads all have numbers associated with them. These numbers relate to the wire numbers titled Wire No. in the table below titled General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information.

J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park J8 Assembly circuit diagram
This Horse Selector Quadrant near the bottom, right of centre in the Circuit Diagram above, shown as a semicircle consisting of four concentric arcs of studs, is a different version to the one seen in the bottom view of a J7 in the image below titled The bottom of a J7 TIM (Issuer) Showing the Horse Halo, consisting of two arcs of concentric studs. The Circuit Diagram above has four studded arcs because there are not only arcs for Win and Place pools but it is doubled up into four arcs as it also accommodates High and Low values for each pool. The arc in the J7 shown below only supports Win and Place pools without any selectable value, the value being set by the escapement wheel that the TIM is attached to in the Adder. Without a selectable value on the machine, to get higher value tickets punters had to go to a high value window where the TIM in that window was connected to a higher value escapement wheel in the Adders. Failing that a lower value TIM would have to print multiple tickets to make up the value of the transaction the punter required. The way the later TIMs accommodated selectable value was to include a second set of stud arcs as seen in the Horse Halo, or Horse Quadrant in the Circuit Diagram above.

As mentioned, the Randall Park J8s accommodated the Show Pool. This is selected by an additional switch added to the J8. It can be seen in the Circuit Diagram above with the label Show Switch, which can be found to the left of the Horse Halo below the text Horse Selector Quadrant, which is synonymous with Horse Halo. The J8 at the top of this page, as previously mentioned supported an additional pool as well, to the normal Win and Place, only instead for the Show Pool it is the Forecast Pool. The switch seen in the top left quadrant of the J8 in the image at the top of this page, that is marked P at the top end of its travel and F at the bottom end of its travel, changes a Place Pool bet to a Forecast bet, if the switch is in the lower position. The Show Pool switch shown in the Circuit Diagram above, will have been implemented by the same switch as the one just described in the image at the top of the page, except that instead of F for Forecast it will have been marked S for Show.

In the bottom right corner of the J8 TIM shown at the top of this page three counters can be seen marked WIN and FORECAST side by side, with another marked TOTAL underneath. These counters allowed the operator's takings to be balanced. These counters were electromechanical counters manufactured by Veeder Root. Veeder Root mechanical counters were also used in the Adders. In the bottom right hand corner of the Circuit Diagram above, two windings can be seen, one on top of the other. These are the Veeder Root counter windings. Like the J8 TIM shown at the top of this page these counters total the number of sales on the American version of the J8, however instead of dividing the sales into Win/Place and Forecast pools like the Australian J8 shown at the top of this page, it divides them into high value and low value. The top of both windings, via pad 14, comes from the switch above and to the left of the counter windings with the word Test on top of the word Switch seen on top of the switch. This switch disconnects the counters from the Cam Operated Counter Switch when the Test Switch is activated, as test tickets are not part of the sales. The Cam Operated Counter Switch can be seen in the Circuit Diagram above near the top right hand corner with connecting pads labelled 5 and 13. The words constituting Cam Operated Counter Switch are very difficult to read even in the original document. They look to me like Cam Operated on top of the much clearer two words Counter on top of Switch. A few words are rather bizarre in the Circuit Diagram above, for instance in the word Operated, the "p" has no bottom half the "r" and "t" have no down stroke and the "d" has no upper half. Despite this I feel confident I have interpreted it correctly.

After having indicated my confidence in getting the name Cam Operated Counter Switch right, I have found absolute confirmation that my interpretation is correct. The Cam Operated Counter Switch appears in the list above titled General Assembly of Randall Park issuer in item 16. Additionally the Cam Operated Counter Switch assembly can be seen in a picture drawn inside a circle titled Cam Operated on top of Counter Switch in the image below, titled J8 OPER NO. 22A Randall Park. The bottom ends of each Veeder Root winding at pads 21 and 29, have conductors attached to them both seen descending down to the bottom of the drawing and then travelling left both jumping up a step before travelling further left and finally rising vertically to join the two end pads of three belonging to the switch with a label on top consisting of the word Counter on top of the word Switch. I have called the little circular connection points on these old drawings pads, as this is what they were called on PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) although the early Julius Totes pre-dated PCBs. This Counter Switch, switches the power supply which arrives at the circuit above via Pin 7 bottom right of the 16 Point Plug seen near the middle of the top of the drawing. From there a conductor is shown travelling right and then down to the bottom end of a fuse between the pads labelled 7 below and 45 above. From the upper pad 45 a conductor can be seen travelling up then left then down and left again and then through two more down and left steps finally connecting to the switch arm of the Counter Switch. Hence this Counter Switch selects either the upper or lower counter to receive power, which is the means of directing the high value transactions to the high value counter and the low value transactions to the low value counter. The labels to the right of the two Veeder Root windings again are hard to read and look like the word Low followed by something indeterminable, on top of Veeder for the upper winding and Highfollowed by something, on top of Veeder for the lower one. Both labels are located close to the right hand edge of the drawing near the bottom of the page. As previously mentioned, the bottom ends of each of the Veeder Root windings are at pads 21 and 29, which are connected to the left and right pads of the Counter Switch. We can now use the table below titled General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information to look up what the names of the Veeder Root windings are. For pad 21 the table records the start as the Low Total Veeder and the end as the Low Counter Switch and for pad 29 the start is the High Total Veeder and the end is the High Counter Switch. We now know the names of the two Veeder Root windings in the Circuit Diagram above, which are shown in the diagram with the Low Total Veeder above the High Total Veeder.

Note that the Veeder Assembly is mentioned in the table above titled Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted in item 21. The Veeders are also mentioned in the table below titled General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information in items 14 21 and 29 as well as item T in the First Test listed below.

The image below shows the 16 Point Plug shown top centre in the Circuit Diagram above. The ATL diamond logo can be seen on each of these connectors in the image below, as well as the words Automatic on top of Totalisators on top of Limited below the diamond, on each of the connectors. Normally the plugs of this type of connector were connected to the TIMs and the Adders, and the cables emanating from the black plugs seen in the image above, probably come from TIMs. The sockets that the black plugs are plugged into, which look like they are permanently attached to a wooden cable tray, will have had cables connected to them inside the cable tray, that ran inside the cable tray to the Horse Units/Adders in the Machine Room with the scanners in the machine room providing the activation pulse for transaction cycles. Transaction cycles are performed by mechanical parts that interact with what is called the Betting Circuit. The part of the Betting Circuit that pertains to the TIMs, is described in the company document extracts below. The roll of ticket paper seen sitting on a paper dispenser in the image below, confirms that the nearest TIM is not far away, probably on top of the bench vertically above. Below the ticket roll seems to be the floor level, the level at which the operator's feet will rest. Actually, I bet the odd operators foot has rested in the angled wooden support for the cable tray, seen at the right hand lower edge of the image above! The slot below the displayed tickets shown in the image at the top of this page, is where the tickets are ejected which are printed on and cut from the ticket paper like that shown on the roll in the image below.

Some Plastic Moulded ATL connectors Image of ATL Plastic Moulded Connectors

In the extract below titled BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509., the first paragraph relates to the circuit through each horse unit. The Horse Unit in this old document is what is referred to in the rest of this website as one of the many Shaft Adders in a Julius Tote installation. These are an integral part of the mainframe. The escapements mentioned refer to the escapement shafts containing escapement mechanisms and escapement wheels that record transactions from the TIMs which are summed by epicyclic gears on the adding shafts on the adders. From a simplistic functional perspective, as opposed to implementation, I see the TIMs as the start of the BETTING CIRCUIT, as nothing happens on a Julius Tote except for the rumbling of the mainframe drive motors and scanner drive motors in the machine room, until someone buys a ticket, which is issued from the TIM. In this view, the end of the BETTING CIRCUIT is the Adders where the transaction is recorded and the bit in between is the Scanners/Distributors and associated equipment, which constitutes the front end system that interfaces the TIMs to the Adders.

Following are extracts, pertinent to the TIMs from the Automatic Totalisators Limited Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams document.

BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509. extracts

The circuit through each horse unit is then as follows -. Through the Betting Circuit Switch and Fuse and through the normally closed contacts of the Escapement Cutout Relays (the operation and purpose of these relays is described elsewhere) to the common side of the escapement fuses, there being one fuse for each escapement and thence to the escapements.

From the escapements the circuit now proceeds to the corresponding contacts on the Horse Selector Segments of the corresponding issuers, that is the wire from No. 1 escapement on No. 1 Win Horse Unit is looped into the No. 1 Contact on the Win Horse Selector Segments of all issuers in No. 1 Group and so on.

Webmaster's notes

The image below is not part of the Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams document.In the paragraph above, the Horse Selector Segments are mentioned. Although the following image shows the bottom of a J7 rather than a J8, they look similar. The arc seen with contact studs on it in the image below is the Horse Selector Segments or Horse Halo as it was later called and was used to select the runner number required for the transaction. The arm that sweeps across the arc, or Horse Halo, in the image below is connected to the runner selector handle seen on the top of the J8 in the image at the top of this page.

The bottom of a J7 TIM (Issuer) Showing the Horse Halo Image of the underside of a J7 Ticket Issuing Machine

The collecting brush which picks up the contacts on the Horse Selector Segments is mentioned in the first paragraph of the continued document extract below and the collecting brush can be seen in the image above about half way around the horse halo. Here the extension of the runner selection handle, seen anchored in the centre of an imaginary circle created by extending the runner selection arc in the image at the top of this page is two metal strips in the image above each extending to a position above their respective arc of contacts, with a contact at the ends of each of the strips, which are the collecting brushes one for each of the two arcs of contacts. The outer arc of contacts are for the Win Pool and the inner arc of contacts are for the Place Pool. Usually, there are as many studs in each arc as the maximum number of runners in a race plus one for printing test tickets.

These collecting brushes are clearer in the image below as the Horse Halo has not yet been installed. They are described in the paragraph below the image below. There are four collecting brushes in that image as it relates to the American Randall Park J8s which supported two selectable values requiring an extra pair of Horse Halo studded arcs and corresponding brushes/contacts.

The circuit through each Issuer in the first paragraph below can be seen in the drawing above. When trying to match the technical descriptions in the Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams document which was written in 1935 for a system in New Zealand, to the circuit diagram above labelled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park, which shows the American J8 diagram of 1950, we have to consider that the fifteen years between them and the fact they are systems with differing requirements makes differences between the documents inevitable. It does not help that the arm connection to the Handle Switch in the circuit above is not shown connected to anything. An additional discrepancy is that the American J8s supported a selectable value which the New Zealand system did not as this was a later development. The Handle Lock Switch mentioned in the first paragraph of the continued extract below can be seen in the Circuit Diagram above where it is labelled Handle Switch and is seen above the top right hand end of the Horse Halo. The right hand pad numbered 44 of the Handle Switch in the Circuit Diagram above can be seen connected to the left hand contact pad of the Trip Switch to the right of the Handle Switch, which is one of the series connections mentioned in the paragraph below. Through the contacts of the Trip Switch at the pad on the right hand side, a conductor runs down to pad number 23 which is the top end of the Trip Coil also mentioned in the series connections of the Betting Circuit below. From the bottom of the Trip Coil the circuit travels left and joins the joined legs, with pads sharing the number 28, of a pair of switches labelled P and W. This is what is referred to below as the Win Place - Selector Switch mentioned in the document extract below. There are two pairs of these in the circuit diagram above as it supports high and low value bet selection.

The circuit through each Issuer is then as follows. From the collecting brush which picks up the contacts on the Horse Selector Segments through the Handle Lock Switch (closed only when the handle is locked down) through the Trip Coil, through the trip switch (normally closed when the Issuer is stationary), through the Issuer Switch (Tumbler Switch on Issuer Cover Plate) to the Win - Place Selector Switch.

From each Issuer two wires (one for Win and one for Place) are taken from the Contacts of the Win-Place Selector Switch to the Double Pole Issuer Common Switches on the bottom of the Distributor and Relay Switchboard and thence through the coils of the corresponding Relays to the Distributor Contacts. There are a pair of relays (one Win and one Place) for each Issuer and a pair of Distributors (one Win and one Place) for each Group of Issuers and each Distributor has 8 contacts corresponding to the 8 issuers in the group.

Webmaster's note: The following title is a list item extracted from the BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509 section of the Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams document.

RELAYS ON DISTRIBUTOR BOARD.
There are a pair of relays, one for Win and one for Place for each Issuer.

These relays serve to provide a definite time for the Issuer Trip Coil to function even if the Issuer Handle is depressed just as the Distributor Contact arm is leaving the Contact Stud corresponding to that Issuer.

The relay coil is connected in series with the Trip Coil and escapement magnets and so is energised when the Betting circuit is completed. The relay contacts are arranged so as to short circuit the distributor when the relay closes. Thus the Betting Circuit is maintained when the Distributor Contact arm leaves the contact stud and is only broken by the Issuer Trip Switch. The relay is very quick in operation and will close and so maintain the circuit if the Issuer Handle is depressed just as the Distributor Contact arm is leaving the contact stud.

As the distributors are an essential part of the Betting Circuit I have included another extract from the company document mentioned that gives an example of the path of the betting circuit which obviously includes the path through the distributors.

To illustrate the operation of the Betting Circuit more clearly, assume that No. 22 Issuer is to Issue a 'Win' Ticket on No. 3 horse. The circuit will then be as follows-

  1. From - pole of Main Betting Circuit Switch on Main Switchboard to common side of Starter Switches on Control Room Switchboard.
  2. Though No. 3 'Starter' Switch (assuming that No. 3 Horse is a Starter and the switch has been closed) to the Betting Circuit Switch on No. 3 Win Horse Unit Fuse Board.
  3. Through Betting Circuit Switch, Betting Circuit Fuse, Escapement Cutout Relay Contacts, No. 2 Escapement Fuse to No. 2 Escapement.
  4. From No. 2 Escapement to No. 3 Contact on the Win Horse Selector Segment of No. 22 Issuer.
  5. From this contact through Horse Selector Brush (which will be on this Contact if Handle has been depressed in No. 3 Hole in the Selector Plate and with the Handle Knob in the outer or 'Win' position) through Handle lock Switch (which will close when Handle is depressed) through Trip Coil, Trip Switch, Issuer Switch, and through Win-Place Selector Switch to 'Win' Contact (Switch will be in Win Position if selector handle is in Win Position)
  6. From Win Contact on Issuer through Win Pole of No.22 Issuer Common Switch on Distributor Board through coil of No. 22 Win Relay, to No. 2 Stud of No. 2 Win Distributor.
  7. From Common ring of No. 2 Win Distributor to No. 2 Escapement on Win Grand Total Unit through No. 2 Escapement fuse, through Escapement Cutout Relay Contacts, Betting Circuit Fuse and Betting Circuit Switch.
  8. From Betting Circuit Switch on Win Grand Total Unit to Contacts of Win Contactor (which will be closed if Machine is open for betting) and thence to + side of Main Betting Circuit Switch.

When the Issuer Handle is depressed therefore, the circuit is complete except through the Distributor which completes the circuit as soon as it reaches No. 2 stud. No. 22 Win Relay will then instantly close and so maintain the circuit. The bet will be registered No. 2 Escapement of the Win Grand Total Unit and No. 3 Win horse Unit and the Issuer Trip Coil will function to start the Issuer and open the Betting circuit again.

Here we take a break from the BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509. extracts

J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 7
In the image above, the four contacts at the ends of the metal strips that reach out and make contact with the studs in the Horse Halo can be seen extending up towards the left underneath the runner selection arm in the upper right quadrant of the base plate. These metal strips with contacts at the ends of them are called collecting brushes in the BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509 extracts. The Horse Halo has not yet been installed in the image above, however it can be seen in the image below titled J8 OPER NO. 24 Randall Park, seventeen steps after that of OPER NO. 7 in the image above. In the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above Operation Number 7 is fitting the Platen Assembly and Operation Number 24 is the fitting of Selector Quadrant & Wiring which happens to be the first one to see the Horse Halo, or as it is referred to here the Selector Quadrant.

In the image above, at the tip of the runner selection arm referred to above, the Win/Place selection switch activating arm can be seen protruding above the runner selection arm. The circular knob on top of the end of the runner selection arm, as seen in the image at the top of this page, can travel a short distance radially along the runner selection arm. This movement moves the switch arm shown in the image above. At the left hand end of its travel seen above, or outer position, it selects the Win Pool and at the right hand end of its as seen above, or its inner position it selects the Place Pool. The switches that implement this function can be seen in the circuit diagram above titled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park as a group of four switches arranged in the shape of a square slightly above and to the left of the centre of the diagram. The box is arranged as two rows of two switches each. The switches have letter between the contacts the top pair being P and W which is repeated for the second row. To the right of this group of switches is the label consisting of the words Win Place above Switches.

In the circuit descriptions above the image above, under the heading RELAYS ON DISTRIBUTOR BOARD extracted from the Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams document, the Trip Switch and the Trip Coil are repeatedly mentioned. These can be seen in the drawing below inside two circles in the bottom half, Trip Coil Assembly on the left and Trip Coils on the right. The Trip Switch can be seen in the centre of the Trip Coil Assembly below with the springy metal strips containing the switch contacts at their tips, pointing downwards. The mechanism behind these metal strips pushes on the nearest of the metal strips in the switch which acts to close the contacts of the switch. The Trip Coil Assembly can also be seen in the drawing below titled J8 OPER NO. 27 Randall Park. It is located at the left rear of the partially assembled TIM, sitting higher than any other assembly in its vicinity. The Trip Switch breaks the Transaction Circuit at the end of a transaction cycle.

The following table exists in the Randall Park document, however it has no title so I have made the following title up. It clarifies the numbers in this document like the ones seen identifying wires in the image below that have small circles around them and lines pointing to the particular wire in question. For instance, in the previous paragraph, I wrote The Trip Switch can be seen in the centre of the Trip Coil Assembly below. It is intuitive to think the Trip Switch is in the Trip Coil Assembly, however the table below provides proof positive. There is a line pointing to this switch inside the Trip Coil Assembly circle emanating from a position near the bottom left corner of the drawing where there are two small circles containing the numbers 34 and 44. Looking at the wiring table below these two numbers are both identified as the Trip Switch confirming the Trip Switch is part of the Trip Coil Assembly. Furthermore, the table below also informs us that the wire numbered 34 that is connected to the Trip Switch connects the Trip Switch which is in the Start column to the Condenser, which appears in the End column. Nowadays, Condensers are called a Capacitors. Similarly looking up the wire numbered 44 in the table below we find this connection goes from the Trip Switch shown in the Start column to the Handle Switch, which appears in the End column. These connections from the Trip Switch to the Condenser and the Handle Switch can be seen in the Circuit Diagram above labelled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park.

The wire numbers 34 and 44 already mentioned in the table below and the Trip Coil Assembly drawing shown bottom left of the drawing below titled J8 OPER NO. 22A Randall Park also apply in the circuit diagram mentioned above. This is because all three of these sources come from the Randall Park documentation. For the sake of this explanation, to pick an easily identifiable location on the circuit to start with, I will begin from another point that will lead us back to the Trip Switch, Handle Switch and the Condenser. We can see from the table below that wire number 31 goes from the Trip Switch to the Clutch. The Clutch is easily identifiable in the Circuit Diagram above titled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park. Near the bottom of this Circuit Diagram, there are two large circles drawn side by side, the left hand circle is the clutch. The wire number 31 mentioned is connected to the left side of the Clutch. It descends, travels right and rises vertically, then turning right again for a short distance then returning upwards past the mid height level of the drawing, finally turning left and connecting with pad on the right hand contact of a switch. The pair of contacts in this switch are shown in their open position as seen in the hollow triangles at the top of the switch arms. To the left of this is another switch with its contacts shown closed identified by the filled in black triangles at the top of the switch arms. This is the Trip Switch we are interested in. The left hand arm of this closed switch has two numbers on the right hand side of its connection pad which are 34 and 44, the numbers we were aiming to identify. We previously determined that conductor 34 connects the trip switch to the Condenser. We can now see this in the circuit diagram. Wire number 34 travels down from its connection pad in the left hand arm of the closed contacts of the Trip Switch and then turns right a short distance before descending slightly to join a pad also numbered 34 at the top of the Condenser the destination we were chasing. This condenser bears the conventional capacitor symbol which is two parallel lines that represent the electrodes, at right angles to the leads, although in this drawing the electrodes are shorter to what I am accustomed to. The Capacitor in the Circuit Diagram has the word Condenser underneath it. This wire number 34 in the J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park drawing above, diagrammatically shows the connection shown in tabular form in the table below titled General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information. It is now a simple matter to identify the wire number 44. Returning to the left hand arm of the closed contacts of the Trip Switch in the Circuit Diagram above, from the pad in the left hand arm with 44 to the right and above, this conductor travels left from the pad, which we previously followed the downward path. It travels left a short distance crossing two other vertical conductors and then joining a pad also numbered 44, which is in the right hand arm of another switch. This switch has the name Handle Switch below it.

General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information

Wire No.StartEndWire No.StartEnd
1Tumbler SwitchShow Switch24Win Place SwitchWin Value Switch(Betting)
2Tumbler Switch16 Point Plug25Low Win Value SwitchLow Win Brush Ring
3Tumbler SwitchValue Latch Switch26High Win Value SwitchHigh Win Brush Ring
4Tumbler SwitchTest Coil27Low Place Value SwitchLow Place Brush Ring
5Tumbler SwitchCam Op. Counter Switch28High Place Value SwitchHigh Place Brush Ring
6Tumbler SwitchTrip Switch29High Total VeederHigh Counter Switch
7Isolation Fuse16 Point Plug30Show SwitchWin Place Switch
8Isolation SwitchClutch31Trip SwitchClutch
10Test SwitchIsolation Switch32Trip SwitchCondenser
12MotorIsolation Switch33Trip SwitchTrip Coil
13Test SwitchCam Op. Counter Switch34Trip SwitchCondenser
14Test SwitchVeeders (Common)35Race Change16 Point Plug
15Show Value SwitchShow Switch36Show Value Switch16 Point Plug
16Test SwitchHandle Switch37Show Value Switch16 Point Plug
17Test SwitchValue Latch Switch38High Place Value Switch16 Point Plug
18Tumbler SwitchMotor39Low Place Value Switch16 Point Plug
19Win Place SwitchPlace Value Switch40Low Win Value Switch16 Point Plug
20Win Place SwitchWin Value Switch41High Win Value Switch16 Point Plug
21Low Total VeederLow Counter Switch43Race Change16 Point Plug
22Win Place SwitchPlace Value Switch(Betting)44Trip SwitchHandle Switch
23Win Place SwitchTrip Coil45Cam Op. Counter SwitchIsolation Fuse

The numbers in the Wiring Information table above have far greater significance than ordering the items in the list. They all correspond to the numbers on the pads in the circuit diagram above titled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park. When I found this table, I thought I could find out where the middle contact of the Handle Switch shown in the circuit diagram above, is connected to as there is no connection shown in the diagram as previously mentioned. Unfortunately, the table agrees with the diagram, showing the left arm of the Handle Switch connected to the Test Switch and the right arm connected to the Trip Switch only, leaving the connection of the middle contact of the switch a mystery. This does gel with the circuit diagram as the diagram shows no number next to the pad of the centre arm of the Handle Switch implying there is no entry for it in the list above.

In the circle in the top left quadrant of the image below the Cam Operated Counter Switch can be seen. Above and to the right of the large circle is a small circle with the number 5 in it pointing to the switch. This is a good example of how a Cam Operated Switch works. At the tips of the contact arms of the switch there is a cam wheel to the left of top dead centre of the circle. The tip of the bottom arm of the switch rides on the perimeter of the circular part of the cam, which pushes it towards the other arm closing the contacts on each arm near the tips. The cam turns as a result of a machine cycle being triggered by a sale and when the flat part reaches the switch, it will temporarily open, as the arms of the switch are springy and the contacts will open when the arms straighten without the force applied by the high part of the cam. This can be seen in the drawing at the bottom of this page titled J8 OPER NO. 31 Randall Park in box number 15. The text in this box reads: Cam operated Counter Switch has Contacts closed when follower on large 0. & open when on small 0. The terminology Large zero and Small zero are interesting. I think it relates to the symbol inside the circle at the centre of the cam. It seems to consist of two concentric circles, the outer is the Large 0 and the inner the Small 0. The Large 0 has a pair of parallel lines inside it which form chord lines to the large circle. The two areas between the chords and their respective arcs of the circle are filled in black. This seems to indicate that when the follower is on the Large 0 or outer circle the contacts on the switch are closed, however in the chord line sections, translated to the cam as being the flat sections where the follower drops towards the Little 0 the contacts open. In conclusion, the switch is being operated by the rotation of a shaft, which in this case is part of the operating cycle of the TIM, so that the switch activates for each transaction on the TIM and that is counted on either the High Total Veeder or the Low Total Veeder. One of the Veeders will be selected, as determined by the value set by the Value Switch.

In the table above, the Cam Operated Counter Switch is mentioned three times. Firstly, for Wire Number 5 the table records the start as the Tumbler Switch and the end as the Cam Operated Counter Switch. As we know the location of the Cam Operated Counter Switch this easily identifies the Tumbler Switch. In the circuit diagram above titled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park the Cam Operated Counter Switch is the closest switch to the right hand edge of the image about a quarter of the way down the image from the top. The pad on the left hand arm of this switch is the one labelled 5 which matches the entry in the list above. From there in the circuit diagram, the wire travels left crossing four vertical wires before rising at 45 degrees to join a pad with 5 connections. This pad with 5 connections is the bottom right pad of four belonging to the Tumbler Switch. I thought this was the Tumbler Switch, however this entry in the Wiring Information table confirms this as this switch is not labelled in the Circuit Diagram. Secondly, wire No. 13 in the Wiring Information table above records the Start as the Test Switch and the end as the Cam Operated Counter Switch. This can be seen in the Circuit Diagram from the right hand arm of the Cam Operated Counter Switch descending to the bottom half of the circuit where it turns left to connect with the top contact of the Test Switch. Finally, Wire No. 45 in the Wiring Information table above records the Start as the Cam Operated Counter Switch and the end as the Isolation Fuse. This is rather curious as the previous two entries for the Cam Operated Counter Switch have already been accounted for in the Circuit Diagram above and there are no more connections shown to this switch in it. So looking for Wire No. 45 in the Circuit Diagram, it can be found at the top of the Isolation Fuse mentioned. To locate this fuse, look at the bottom right contact of the 16 Point Plug at the top centre of the Circuit Diagram. Follow this wire right where it then descends and turns right once more for a short distance, where it joins the bottom of the fuse at pad 7. From the upper pad of the fuse, pad 45 a conductor can be seen travelling up then left then down and left again and then through two more down and left steps finally connecting to the centre switch arm of the Counter Switch. This raises the question, does the Counter Switch have anything to do with the Cam Operated Counter Switch? If yes then the relationship is not clear as they both have different names and they look like two separate switches in the Circuit Diagram. If no then the Wiring Information table seems to be wrong regarding Wire No. 45. Or perhaps I am missing something?

In the circle in the top right quadrant of the image below the Win Place Switch can be seen. This shows another method of activating these switches, to the the Cam Operated Counter Switch described in the previous paragraph. Four switch arms can be seen protruding below the body of the switch, in the centre of the Win Place Switch drawing. On the near side of these arms, a triangular plate can be seen pivoted at the apex of the triangle, around which the plate rotates, as a result of changing between Win and Place Pools by using the runner selection arm knob. When the triangle pivot is in its anticlockwise position a pin extending from the bottom right hand end of the triangle, that is located between the two inner pairs of switch arms, pushes the right hand inner switch arm against the right hand outer switch arm causing an electrical connection between the contacts on the right hand pair of switch arms. Conversely when the triangle pivot is in its clockwise position it pushes the left hand inner switch arm against the left hand outer switch arm causing a connection between this left hand pair of switch arms. Another switch system like the one visible exists behind the visible set in the image below. The tips of the left two switch arms of the inner set can be seen peering below the mid section of the hypotenuse of the triangular plate. The pin in the triangular plate activates both the front and rear set of switch arms. This effectively makes a group of four switches which can be seen in the circuit diagram above titled J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park. Extending the left side of the 16 Point Plug downwards you come across a name, Win Place on top of Switches. To the left of this name is a group of four switches which are the switches seen in the Win Place Switch drawing below. The two left switches have a P between their contacts and the two right switches have a W between them that stand for Win and Place leading to their name Win Place Switch. As all four switch segments have a single activator they have a singular name.

As previously mentioned, changing between Win and Place Pools is achieved by using the knob on top of the runner selection arm. The way this is implemented, I find is a very interesting aspect of these old systems. I always presumed, when looking at the runner selection arm in these old TIMs, that the knob movement radially along the arm, operated a switch in the arm located underneath the knob and that the operation of the switch was carried by electrical wires out of the arm into the rest of the circuitry. On seeing the size of the Win Place Switch in the drawing below, I realised I was wrong. Obviously the mini and micro switches we are accustomed to today, were not available at the time these machines were manufactured, neither was circuitry requiring lesser currents. The movement of the knob on top of the arm is carried out of the arm assembly by a mechanical cable like the old clutch and brake cables on motorcycles, before they became hydraulic, and the brake cables that are still used on bicycles. These have an inner mechanical cable that moves in and out of an outer tube like housing. Unlike these clutch and brake cables however, where a lever pulls the inner cable out and a spring at the other end pulls the cable back once the lever is released or the pressure is reduced, the knob arrangement on the TIM has a sufficiently rigid inner cable that it can be both pulled and pushed by the knob movement. The knob can be seen in the image at the top of this page near the left hand end of the runner selection arm. With this knob pushed to its extremity towards the tip of the arm, the Win Pool is selected and with it moved to its opposite extremity, towards the pivot point, the Place Pool is selected.

This knob is attached to the mechanical cable mentioned, that runs horizontally along the inside of the arm to the pivot point of the arm and then runs down the centre of the spindle on which the arm rotates, eventually exiting the centre of the spindle inside the J8 case, below the baseplate seen in the drawing above titled J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park. In the bottom right quadrant of the baseplate shown in that drawing, three cut-outs can be seen, one wide one, parallel to and close to the bottom edge of the baseplate, with another two above it looking somewhat square like. Looking through the left of the two square like cut-outs, the bottom of the runner selection arm spindle can be seen. It is through the bottom of this spindle that the Win Place selection cable extends. The Win Place Switch, shown below in the top right quadrant, will be mounted underneath the baseplate shown in the J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park drawing, near this cable protruding from the bottom of the runner selection handle spindle. As the Win Place Switch is screwed onto the Frame in Operation 8, it is not yet installed in the J8 OPER NO. 7 Randall Park drawing above. Consequently, as the Win Place selection cable has not yet been connected to the Win Place Switch it can still be seen in the OPER NO. 7 drawing above. Again, looking through the left of the two square like cut-outs in the base just mentioned, and looking vertically below the bottom tip of the spindle, you can see a small section of the tip of this Win Place selection cable, protruding downwards into the cut-out below, which is on the left hand side of the wide cut-out parallel to and close to the bottom edge of the baseplate, mentioned before. In the Win Place Switch drawing below, a horizontal lever can be seen attached to the triangular plate, both of which pivot on the same spindle. This lever extends left and disappears off the left hand side of the drawing. At the far left hand end of this lever, the inner cable attached to the runner selection arm knob is clamped. When the Win Pool is selected with the knob, this lever rotates the triangular plate clockwise closing the two Win Pool contact pairs on the left and when the knob is placed in the Place Pool position it rotates the triangular plate anticlockwise closing the two Place Pool contact pairs on the right. Having mentioned that the cable attached to the runner selection arm knob is clamped at the far left hand end of the lever that operates the Win Place Switch, this lever seen disappearing off the left hand side of the drawing top right in the image below, can also be seen top left in the drawing labelled Cam Operated Counter Switch, which fortunately shows the other end of the lever, although it is from the rear side of it which does not really matter, showing the connection between the lever and the Win Place selection cable. It is fortunate that the Cam Operated Counter Switch is located near to the Win Place Switch activation arm. So, on the right hand side of the top left drawing in the image below, a large nut can be seen. This is the securing nut of the runner selection arm pivot and the cable extending from the centre of the pivot, is the Win Place selection cable. A short distance above the nut a clamp can be seen on the cable and this clamp is attached to the tip of the Win Place Switch activation lever, which joins the end of the lever disappearing off the left hand side of the drawing shown top right in the image below.

J8 OPER NO. 22A Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 22A

The HANDLE LOCK SWITCH ON ISSUER, is the title of item 7 in the list below. The HANDLE LOCK mechanism can be seen in the image below titled J8 OPER NO. 33A Randall Park. It involves the knob on top of and at the left hand end of the runner selector arm. It can also be seen in the image at the top of this page. This knob, when pressed locks the knob and the runner selector arm on the selected runner and pool closing the HANDLE LOCK SWITCH, to stop the knob and arm moving once a selection is made. This holds the brush on top of the contact in the horse halo shown in the image above. This keeps the contacts in place for the duration of the transaction cycle at the end of which the HANDLE LOCK SWITCH is released. The knob on the top of the runner selection handle can be moved a short distance radially along the runner selection arm. In the outer position it selects the Win Pool and in the inner position it selects the Place Pool. The slot in which the knob moves radially along the arm can be seen in the image below.

The second paragraph in item 8 in the list below titled ISSUER TRIP COIL AND TRIP SWITCH, states the trip coil plunger is arranged so that it is slower in operation than the escapement magnets. The adjustment that achieves this is documented in the image at the bottom of this page titled J8 OPER NO. 31 Randall Park in box number five.

The ISSUER SWITCH ON ISSUER, is the title of item 9 in the list below. The tumbler switch that cuts out the issuer as mentioned in item 9, is the switch near the top right hand corner of the image at the top of this page.

BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509. extracts

The following list items starting with capital letter titles are extracted from the BETTING CIRCUIT section of the company document titled Automatic Totalisators Limited Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams:
  1. ESCAPEMENT MAGNETS ON HORSE UNITS.
    These magnets operate the adding escapements which record each bet on the appropriate horse and Grand Total Unit.
  2. HORSE SELECTOR SEGMENT ON ISSUER.
    These selector segments operate with a moving contact arm which is controlled by the Selector Handle of the Issuer and so connect the Issuer to the Horse Unit corresponding to the Horse for which the Ticket is to be issued.
  3. HANDLE LOCK SWITCH ON ISSUER.
    This switch is only closed when the Selector Handle has been pressed and locked into the hole on the Selector Plate corresponding to the Horse for which the ticket is to be issued. This switch remains closed and the handle is locked down until the cycle of the Issuer has been practically completed.
  4. ISSUER TRIP COIL AND TRIP SWITCH.
    This Trip Coil is in series with the escapement magnets. When the Betting Circuit is completed the appropriate Horse and Grand Total Escapement Magnets and the Issuer Trip Coil are all energised at the one time. The Trip Coil operates a solenoid plunger which at the end of its stroke, opens the Issuer Trip Switch and so interrupts the Betting Circuit and at the same time the plunger releases a mechanical latch on the Issuer and closes the circuit for the magnetic clutch and the Issuer then prints and issues the ticket.

    The trip coil plunger is arranged so that it is slower in operation than the escapement magnets so as to ensure that the trip switch is not opened before the escapement magnets have operated.

  5. ISSUER SWITCH ON ISSUER.
    This is a tumbler switch on the Issuer Cover and enables the Seller to cutout the issuer when she leaves it unattended.
  6. WIN-PLACE SELECTOR SWITCH ON ISSUER.
    This switch is operated by the Issuer Selector Handle and serves to connect the Issuer to either the Win or Place Adding units as required.
  7. ISSUER COMMON SWITCHES ON DISTRIBUTOR SWITCHBOARD.
    There is one of these switches for each Issuer and they enable any issuer to be cut out from the Machine Room when it is not in use and so prevent the unauthorised use of the issuers.

Webmaster's note:

I have included the following item extracts in this list. They do not directly belong to the TIM, but the Distributors, or what are synonymously called Scanners, however I have included these following items as they make reference to the Trip Coil in the TIM
  1. DISTRIBUTORS.
    There are a pair of Distributors for each Group of Issuers, that is for each Escapement, one for Win and one for Place. Each distributor has 8 contact studs and a common contact ring and a contact arm is continually rotated thus connecting the ring to each stud in turn. The distributors are driven at a speed of about 90 revolutions per minute by means of a motor and suitable gearing.

    The eight studs are connected to the 8 issuers in the group and the common ring is connected to the corresponding Grand Total Escapement, so that the distributor serves to connect the 8 issuers in the group to the one escapement magnet in turn, that is the circuit is only completed through one issuer at a time even if the whole 8 issuers have their handles depressed at the same instant. This enables one escapement to record the bets from 8 issuers.

    When an issuer handle is depressed, the Betting Circuit is not completed until the Distributor Contact arm reaches the stud corresponding to that issuer. The Issuer Trip Coil plunger is arranged so that it will operate and so open the Betting Circuit again before the Distributor reaches the next Contact stud, thus enabling the escapement to make its return stroke and be ready to record the bet from the next issuer in the group if its handle has been depressed.

  2. RELAYS ON DISTRIBUTOR BOARD.
    There are a pair of relays, one for Win and one for Place for each Issuer.

    These relays serve to provide a definite time for the Issuer Trip Coil to function even if the Issuer Handle is depressed just as the Distributor Contact arm is leaving the Contact Stud corresponding to that Issuer.

    The relay coil is connected in series with the Trip Coil and escapement magnets and so is energised when the Betting circuit is completed. The relay contacts are arranged so as to short circuit the distributor when the relay closes. Thus the Betting Circuit is maintained when the Distributor Contact arm leaves the contact stud and is only broken by the Issuer Trip Switch. The relay is very quick in operation and will close and so maintain the circuit if the Issuer Handle is depressed just as the Distributor Contact arm is leaving the contact stud.

so ends the extracts from the BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509.

J8 OPER NO. 24 Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 24
The image above has the following text in the bottom left hand corner:
  1. PASS PLUGS AND FORMER THRU
    FRAME AS SHOWN.
  2. FIT SEGMENT ONTO POSTS &
    SCREW DOWN AFTER CORRECTLY
    ALIGNING.
  3. FIT CLIP TO BRACKET SHOWN.
  4. SOLDER WIRE FROM TEST BUTTONS
    TO TEST COIL.
  5. ON MAIN ISSUER FORMER SOLDER
    WIRE # 25 TO TOP BRUSH RING OF SEGMENT.
    WIRE # 27 TO TOP BRUSH RING OF SEGMENT.

In the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above, Operation Number 24 is listed as 24 Selector Quadrant & Wiring. The Selector Quadrant mentioned is short for the Horse Selector Quadrant which is referred to as the SEGMENT in the text above transcribed from the image above. This is the first time the Horse Selector Quadrant appears in any of these drawings in the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF TICKET ISSUEING MACHINE, Automatic Totalisators Limited document.

In the image below, the assembly shown in the image above has been turned upside down to work on the opposite side of it. The Paper Chute that looks like a metal slab towering at the right hand rear of the assembly in the image below feeds paper into the Print Platen, the wider sub assembly left rear, slightly higher than and to the left of the horse halo in the image above. The image below shows the bottom side of the J8.

J8 OPER NO. 27 Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 27
The image above has the following text in the bottom left hand corner:
STRIP WIRES # 12 & # 18.
BOLT MOTOR ASSLY TO FRAME.
LINK UP CHAIN.
FIT BRUSHES INTO BRUSH HOLDER
 & RETAIN WITH SCREENS ON
 FORMER.
SOLDER WIRES # 12 & # 18 TO
 TERMINAL ON MOTOR BASE.
In the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above, Operation Number 27 is listed as 27 Motor & Brushes, Chain & Split Link. In the text above transcribed from the drawing it can be seen that the MOTOR ASSLY or Motor Assembly is being BOLTed to the frame in line two and that the BRUSHES are being FITted in line four. Additionally the CHAIN is being LINKed UP in line three as the name in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted indicates.

The image below has instructions in the bottom left corner and the final line contains an item of importance. Starting in the middle of the text above it reads:

SELECT SUITABLE HORSE
 NUMBER AND PLUG IN.
DRILL HOLE THROUGH TYPE
 WHEEL CASTING (PILOT
 HOLE IS IN GEAR) USE #3;
 DRILL.
TAPER REAM TO SUIT TAPER PIN.
DRIVE IN PIN FIRMLY & ENSURE
  HEAD CLEARS W.P.S. ARM
SCREW TICKET CHUTE TO PLATEN
 ASSEMBLY.
REMOVE ALL SWARF. THIS IS MOST IMPORTANT.
The note on the right hand side of the image below clarifies the drill mentioned above and specifies the Taper Reamer to use and reads:
USE No 3; DRILL &
No 000 TAPER REAMER.
The W.P.S. ARM mentioned in line nine of the list above the two line list, is what is called the Win Place Show Arm. This seems to be marked P.W.S. on the metal object that looks like a bracket to the left of the centre of the Horse Halo in the image below. This could be the arm mentioned. Below this bracket/arm there is a strip that looks like ticket paper that runs from a guide at the near side of the TIM to the printer above the P.W.S. bracket/arm. Above the rear side of the TIM there is a drawing identifier SAJ96 which points to the ticket exit chute on top of the printer. The strip that I likened to ticket paper, is not ticket paper but an ink ribbon for the printer. The ticket paper is fed from below.

In the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above, Operation Number 33 is listed as 33 Taper Pinning Operation and 33A, which is the drawing below, is listed as 33A Ticket Issuer Chute. It can be seen in the text from this drawing above that the Ticket Issuer Chute or TICKET CHUTE in line 10 is being screwed to the PLATEN which is already on the TIM in this step.

J8 OPER NO. 33A Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 33A

The image below shows the final touches being applied to the TIM as shown in the the bottom left hand corner of the drawing and in the transcription text below. In the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above, Operation Number 34 is listed as 34 Covers & Horse Number Segments. The covers are mentioned in the text below and the NUMBER STRIPS mentioned in line 13 being stuck on, are the Horse Number Segments mentioned in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list.

CHECK HEIGHT FROM TOP OF
 COVERS TO RUNNERS.
SET WITH TWO SCREWS IN BOX
 TO CORRECT HEIGHT.
CHECK COVERS FOR FLATNESS.
CHECK FRONT OF BOX & COVER
 FOR .010' PROTRUSION.
CHECK HANDLE CASTING FOR FOULING.
CHECK COVER JOIN DOWN CENTRE
 OF BOX.
ENSURE COVERS ARE EASY TO
 REMOVE & REPLACE.
STICK NUMBER STRIPS DOWN WITH CEMENT
 AFTER DRILLING.
SPOT THROUGH STRIP INTO COVERS AFTER
 CHECKING SELECTION.
RIVET STRIPS TO COVERS.
FINALLY TEST ALL NUMBER SELECTION.
J8 OPER NO. 34 Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 34

The following First Test Check List below is mentioned in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted page shown above, which is part of the General Assembly of Ticket Issueing Machine document. Item 32 of the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted page, calls upon this test to be performed with the words First Test. The page containing the checklist items below has Operation 32 in the bottom right corner with George Julius' initials GAJ above. This identifies this "First Test" shown below as Operation 32.

I note that in the original document the list appears without any "I" entry and the list jumps from H to J. I have presented the list below the same way so it is true to the original.

First Test

  1. Check alignment of Clutch & Chain Assembly
  2. Check Isolation Switches
  3. Check Ribbon Feed
  4. Check all contacts
  5. Check over Issuer for loose Nuts, Split Pins etc.
    note especially all adjustment Locknuts for tightness.
  6. Check Printing Platen & Guillotine movement
  7. Set up all Types & adjust Platen Assembly to suit Types of
    Type Wheel, Win, Place & Show. Check settings of these
    adjust if necessary
  8. Check Guillotine for cutting by hand operation
  9. Adjust Race No. Spindle
  10. Check Locating Pin in Handle for lining up with each Slot
    in Horse Quadrant
  11. Check Handle Latch movement in at least 3 positions.
    'Test.' 'Central' & 'No. 1'
  12. Check Handle Release
  13. Check action of Cam for Show
  14. Check Paper Bracket Assembly
  15. Check pressure on Paper Feed Rollers
  16. Check Grease Nipples for Grease & Oil where necessary
  17. Check Operation of value Slide
  18. Check value Release for all Values
  19. Check all Switch Actuating Pegs for Rigidity
  20. Check Electric Veeders for correct operation.

The following Final Test Check List below is also mentioned in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted page shown above in Item 35 the entry for which is Final Test. Similar to the First Test page, the page containing the checklist items below has Operation 35 in the bottom right corner with George's initials GAJ above. Item 35 in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted list above is Spray Finish Issuer Box and the detials for this are shown below.

Final Test

  1. Print full set of Tickets - Win Place & Show for
    all Horses and Test.
  2. Change Race Numbers from No 1 to No 10 on a
    set of Tickets.
  3. Check Tickets & tape Together a full set with
    Cellulose Tool Place Tickets in bottom of Issuer
    between the Former and the Case.
  4. Ensure no Drilling Swarf has been left after
    Pinning Operations Particularly inspect
    Ink Ribbon on this point.
  5. Check Issuer Covers for flushness with
    Bench Top.

The following Spray Polish issuer Box Check List below is also mentioned in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted page shown above in Item 36 the entry for which is Final Test. Similar to the First Test page, the page containing the checklist items below has Operation 36 in the bottom right corner with George's initials GAJ above.

Spray Polish issuer Box

  1. Remove Issuer Covers from Box
  2. Fit Spraying Covers & mask Holes with
    Masking Tape
  3. Spray Issuer Box with Undercoat
  4. Spray Issuer Box with clear Lacquer
  5. Remove Spraying Covers
  6. "Pull" Lacquer Polish with Chamois Leather
  7. Fit Issuer Covers back on Box

Finally a copy of the Operation Number 31 drawing which in the Sequence of Operations & Parts Fitted is called 31 Electrical Setting Details. This is where all the tuning is done or what in the electronics era would be called an alignment procedure. Item one is worthy of a special note:

It reads Check wiring of issuer to Wiring Diagrams W275 & W276. Use a 'Bell Set' & ring each wire through. In my time, I would have used a multimeter, or in my early period an AVO meter to measure the resistance of connections. AVO stands for Amps, Voltage, Ohms, the three electrical measurements the meter can perform. Prior to my time, although I have seen them used, a simpler device was used to prove connectivity called a Bell Set. This basically was a power source and a bell with leads attached to them, which when shorted out rings the bell. In this way it is possible to determine that two points in a circuit, that are supposed to be connected together by a wire or other conductor, are actually connected, by placing a lead of the Bell Set to each of the two test points of the circuit being tested, then if the bell rings the wire is present and this is what item one in the image below refers to as ring each wire through. "Each wire" refers to all the wires in the Wiring Diagrams mentioned and the information in the General Assembly of Randall Park issuer Wiring Information table above, and above that the J8 Circuit Diagram Randall Park, can also be used for that purpose. The bell often was a tone generator, the point being something that makes a noise if the contact points the leads are connected to, are electrically connected to each other. This way wire connections between contact points can be established by a threshold level of noise. It is 2018 and I note that there are still modern versions of this device available. These are good for a single person to find wire pairs somewhere removed from the location of the Bell Set, which is attached to the pair of wires wishing to be located at the other end so long as the bell set can be heard from the other end. Then it is only a matter of shorting out pairs of wires at the other end until the Bell Set is heard, confirming that the pair has been found.

Another interesting aspect of this old machinery, is that gaps are often measured by the diameter of a drill instead of using a feeler gauge. I can remember using feeler gauges, primarily to set the ignition points gap in the distributor, when car and motorcycle engines had these mechanical devices. The other item I have often used a feeler gauge for is setting the spark gap in the spark plugs of reciprocating engines, a need that outlived that of the points in the distributor. If you have a readily available drill of the right diameter however, I can see no reason why not to use that as a gauge for setting a gap. Having mentioned distributors in engines, the car distributors share their name with the Time Division Multiplexers in the Julius Tote which were initially called Distributors and later seemed to be called Scanners. I can see the similarity between an ignition distributor in a car and the Julius Tote Time Division Multiplexers (TDMs). The former triggers a spark in a sequence to multiple spark plugs and the latter creates an enabling pulse for a group of TIMs in sequence, a process reminiscent of the later protocol concept of polling. As an example of a drill being used to set a gap, item four in the drawing below has the following text associated with it: Check Trip Coil Rocker & Set clearance using a No. 50 Drill on top, with the following text on the left hand side: .07 Drill must pass thru. The enlarged view circle inside the number four box, shows the end view of the drill as a small filled black circle between the rocker arm and the top of the coil. The upside down screw inside a threaded holder, shown in the number four box, with its tip in contact with the rocker arm on the right hand side of the rocker arm fulcrum, is the means of adjusting this gap.

As previously described, the Trip Coil is a critical part of the Betting Circuit and terminates the transaction cycle. This trip coil is the one that is arranged so that it is slower in operation than those in the escapement magnets in the Horse Adder and the Grand Total Adder, to ensure that the trip switch is not opened before the bet is recorded which would prematurely terminate the transaction cycle, as previously described in this page in the extract from the company document titled Automatic Totalisators Limited Description of Electrical Circuit Diagrams under the heading titled BETTING CIRCUIT./ Drawing No. 3509. This timing is adjusted in item five in the drawing below which has the following text: Set Trip Coil Rocker Spring Tension To Trip Rocker at 1.2 to 1.3 Amps.

J8 OPER NO. 31 Randall Park J8 Assembly drawing 31

What I find amazing about all this is what I call Engineering Artwork. All the drawings above are 1950 engineering drawings. This sort of engineering documentation heavily oriented around drawings, go back to the origins of Automatic Totalisators Limited in 1917. I can remember enjoying an Engineering subject called Technical Drawing. I can remember at the time thinking it was quite artistic, although it did not involve anything more than the good old tools one had at school in the Geometry Sets, which were usually supplied in a metal tin. These generally included a ruler, set square, compass and a pair of dividers. There was nothing in this subject that required freehand drawing however. I am astounded at what drawings were made like the ones above in Engineering Companies prior to the advent of CAD/CAM systems. I wonder how long it would have taken to produce some of these drawings. George Julius' engineering consulting company Julius Poole & Gibson, published a book called Julius Poole & Gibson The First Eighty Years. This book had a subtitle From Tote To CAD. This subtitle seems particularly pertinent when thinking about the drawings produced. I remember the Drawing Offices producing these drawings that used to be sizeable departments, which used to be a hive of activity. I believe Art definitely exists in Engineering and that this is particularly the case with Engineering Drawing/ Technical Drawing. As previously mentioned, the personal computer and the readily available CAD/CAM software put an end to the need for Drawing Offices.

On the subject of Engineering Drawings, it reminds me of an Anecdote from Jim Loveday, who was a Partner of Julius Poole & Gibson, which is extracted from the book Julius Poole & Gibson The First Eighty Years:

Jim Loveday had a cheery and affable personality. He loved to tell a story of the early days when he was working under the usually strict and demanding eye of George Julius. The following anecdote took place at Culwulla Chambers.

Sir George had a buzzer installed which he used to summon us to show the progress of our work. One day the drawing I had just finished blew out of the window and floated down Castlereagh Street where it was run over by a tram. I rushed down stairs, retrieved the remains of the drawing and got back just in time to hear the buzzer sound twice which was the signal for me to present my work.

Sir George slowly eyed the mutilated drawing in my hands and simply remarked dead pan "You've made quite a mess of this drawing, Loveday, I expect to see some improvement in future".

After all this latest investigation, resulting from incorporating Bob Doran's Riccarton Automatic Totalisators Limited documents and Garry Elliot's J8 assembly company document into this and other pertinent pages of this website in September/October 2018, that I now find myself in the peculiar situation of feeling confident I could get a job anywhere in the world as a Julius Tote Engineer. As Maxwell Smart from the TV show Get Smart would have said, it was a great plan with one minor flaw! I am retired and thoroughly enjoying it and I am at least half a century too late! In the forty years that I have known about the Julius Totes, I have always cringed when someone called me a Julius Tote expert and even now, I would be reluctant to wear that title.


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Acknowledgements



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