This technology history page contains a photograph, which is one of several belonging to the photo gallery pages, which are part of several pages relating to the invention of the world's first automatic totalizator in 1913 and Automatic Totalisators Limited, the Australian company founded in 1917 by George Julius, to develop manufacture and export these systems.

The Top of a J1 Ticket Issuing Machine (TIM) 1916

This image shows the top of a J1 ticket issuing machine in 1916, with its side covers in place and the top cover hinged open. Multiples of these machines were used on racetracks, as part of a Julius Totalisator, to record and sell totalisator tickets. The previous image in the photo gallery shows this machine with the side panels removed. To view the previous image click on the image below and scroll up and select the previous image thumbnail. This J1 is purely mechanical. The Julius Totes became electromechanical in 1917, to amongst other things, provide for larger systems and more distributed points of sale. A drive pulley can be seen at the rear of the machine. On the nearside is a keyboard with typewriter-like keys numbered 1 to 30. Each key represents a runner in a race which means the maximum field size is 30.

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This J1 is part of an online, realtime, multiuser system long before the electronic systems that made these concepts commonplace.

Sir George Julius made a comment in a 1932 article, which appeared in the Gippsland Times Newspaper relating his thoughts on development of the totalisator. The content of this article is made available by the National Library of Australia on its Trove website with the following details:
1932 'HOW THE AUTOMATIC TOTALISATOR WAS INVENTED', Gippsland Times (Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 7 January, p. 3. , viewed 20 May 2016,

Following are comments relating to Sir George's early design philosophy and the future of totalisator design, extracted from the Gippsland Times article. The first sentence explains his original design philosophy, which was purely mechanical and resulted in two purely mechanical totalisators being built. The first was installed at Ellerslie in New Zealand, the system that was the world's first Automatic Totalisator, and a second at Gloucester Park in Perth. The J1 Ticket Issuing machine shown above, is an example of this purely mechanical design. The second paragraph indicates Sir George's change in design philosophy, to embrace electrical elements in future systems, which were incorporated in the central processing system or mainframe, as well as in the TIMs. These electrical elements are implemented in all the following TIMs in the photo gallery. During the computer era a process took place of increasingly implementing funtionality electronically resulting in TIMs with only essential mechanical components where functions cannot be performed electronically. Following are the extracts from the Gippsland Times article:

I had the idea that if electric current were employed definite action could not be guaranteed due to the permissive action of electricity as compared with positive action of a piece of machinery.

I soon discovered, however, that a design restricted to the use of positive mechanism would cripple development, as the machinery was very heavy and all the recording had to be centred at one spot. Attention was then directed to a machine in which electricity would be the connecting medium, but with safeguards to ensure that if there were any failure, the operator would be warned, and the ticket not issued.

Nowadays, we have a word for Sir George's words a machine in which electricity would be the connecting medium, he is talking about a Network. Additionally Sir George's words with safeguards to ensure that if there were any failure, the operator would be warned, and the ticket not issued would in the computer era be referred to as, error detection with error handling.

Sir George also made an observation about Australian workmen, in this Gippsland Times newspaper article. Sir George's concluding statement in the article is: These machines have all been built in Australia in almost every detail, and are a tribute to the abilities of the Australian workman. This applies to complete totalisator systems, including the central processing mainframe, as well as the TIMs and display systems and as such, applies to all the Julius Tote machinery on this website. In the computer era, when Sir George was deceased, Automatic Totalisators Limited, or what later became known as ATL, used DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) Minicomputer systems as the basis of the central processing part of the totalisator, which were manufactured in Massachusetts in the USA.

The complete transcript of the Gippsland Times article titled How the Automatic Totalisator was Invented appears on this website in the Mechanical Aids to Calculation chapter. To view this, click on the image above. Scroll to the bottom of the page and select the Go to the index menu option in the Nav Bar and select the Mechanical Aids to Calculation chapter.