This technology history page contains a photograph, which is one of several belonging to the Photo Gallery pages, which are part of several pages relating to the invention of the world's first automatic totalizator in 1913 and Automatic Totalisators Limited, the Australian company founded in 1917 by George Julius, to develop manufacture and export these systems.

Inside a J1 Ticket Issuing Machine (TIM) 1916

This is a J1 Ticket Issuing Machine with its covers removed. It was used along with several other TIMs at racetracks to sell totalizator tickets as part of a Julius Totalizator system. George Julius named his totalizator product The Premier Totalisator. This J1 is part of an on line, real time, multi user system long before the electronic systems that made these concepts commonplace. As can be seen, it is purely mechanical. The Julius Totes became electromechanical in 1917, the same year Automatic Totalisators Limited was founded, to amongst other things, provide for larger systems and more distributed points of sale. The next image in the photo gallery is a top view of this machine with its covers on. Click on the image below to return to the Photo Gallery of this website.

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The top of the TIM has buttons to operate it. This TIM was patented in Australia in 1914 a year after The World's First Automatic Totalisator commenced operation in Ellerslie, Auckland New Zealand, invented by George Julius. It will be another three years until George founds his second company Automatic Totalisators Limited. He already has an engineering consulting company, which will become Julius Poole and Gibson, which at the turn of the century was Australia's oldest engineering consulting company. The forerunner to Automatic Totalisators Limited was Totalling Mechanisms Limited which was formed in 1911. You might ask, if the J1 was patented in 1914, what did the first Julius tote use instead. In the Ellerslie system the selling stations were more an integral part of the mainframe part of the system.

The name J1 is a ticket issuing machine type identification, with the J indicating it belongs to a Julius Tote and the following digits indicating the model number, although this TIM type numbering survived the transition to computer based totalisator design and manufacture and continued into that era. The J22 for instance is the company's first microprocessor based TIM used with digital computer based totalisators the company developed.

Sir George Julius made a comment in a 1932 article, which appeared in the Gippsland Times Newspaper relating to the TIM in the image above. The content of this article is made available by the National Library of Australia on its Trove website with the following details:
1932 'HOW THE AUTOMATIC TOTALISATOR WAS INVENTED', Gippsland Times (Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 7 January, p. 3. , viewed 20 May 2016,

Following is the comment relating to the TIM above, extracted from the Gippsland Times article: Somewhat earlier--in 1916---I had come to the conclusion that success would be facilitated if the machine could print the tickets as they were sold, and that the act of printing should give the impetus to the recording mechanism. I then produced a ticket-issuing machine, which printed the number of a horse and other information, but the connection with the recording mechanism was by means of a complicated series of steel wires.

Sir George also made an observation about Australian workmen, in this Gippsland Times newspaper article. Sir George's concluding statement in the article is: These machines have all been built in Australia in almost every detail, and are a tribute to the abilities of the Australian workman.

The complete transcript of the Gippsland Times article titled How the Automatic Totalisator was Invented appears on this website in the Mechanical Aids to Calculation chapter. To view this, click on the image above. Scroll to the bottom of the page and select the Go to the index menu option in the Nav Bar and select the Mechanical Aids to Calculation chapter.